Volume 16, Numéro 2, Mars-Avril 2009
|Page(s)||87 - 96|
|Section||Agronomie – Environnement|
|Publié en ligne||15 mars 2009|
La filière du cocotier au Ghana et au Nigéria
Consultant, I&D/Bourbon Madagascar, Services aux agriculteurs
2 Université du Ghana, Legon, Accra, Ghana
3 Institut des régions chaudes (IRC), 1101, avenue Agropolis CS 24501, 34093 Montpellier cedex 05, France
In last ten years (1998-2007), the area planted to coconut in the world (average 12 Mha) has shown a decreasing trend (average 1%/year). World coconut oil production has remained at more or less the same level in the last ten years (average 3 MT/year). The study of the coconut commodity chain in Ghana show that this sector is confronted with many constraints: the inadequacy price of coconut oil and the competition with other oleaginous plants; an aging coconut plantation; the impacts of the coconut yellow lethal disease, an important demand in peeled nuts towards Nigeria market and the weak dynamism of its institutional organization. Four commodity chains are moving together: the commodity chains of the processing of traditional and semi-industrial coconut oil produce little added value. The commodity of fresh nuts produces a higher added value with limited urban market. Finally, the recent export of peeled nuts commodity chain towards Nigeria offers a large market and brings an important added value to the smallholders. Despite a replanting project in hybrid coconuts, the rehabilitation/ replanting of coconut plantation remains one of the challenges to deal with, in order to boost the coconut commodity chain in Ghana. The observation is that smallholders have not taken up the challenge after the public interventions have seized, in order to rehabilitate or replant their coconut trees. The strategy developed does not sufficiently lay on the market signal which today has evolved. The improved material available and the tested technologies should allow the boosting of the production sector and the reduction of the vulnerable conditions of household affected or threaten by the disease. The same way, the divergent strategies of stakeholders of the coconut commodity chain in Ghana slow down the dynamic of reorientation of this sector towards the export of peeled nuts. Producers in particular, should take advantage of this lucrative commodity chain. It is about all the stakeholders having interest in this commodity chain by preserving the coconut oil sector, which shows an economic, but also considerable social dimension. The boost of this production passes necessarily through the support function of the production and through professional organizations of producers.
Key words: commodity chain analysis / coconut oil / fresh nuts / professional organization / Ghana / Nigeria
© John Libbey Eurotext 2009
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