Open Access
Issue
OCL
Volume 23, Number 5, September-October 2016
Article Number D504
Number of page(s) 9
Section Dossier: New perspectives of European oleochemistry / Les nouvelles perspectives de l’oléochimie européenne
DOI https://doi.org/10.1051/ocl/2016021
Published online 27 June 2016

© D. Righini et al., published by EDP Sciences, 2016

Licence Creative Commons
This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

1 Introduction

The European policy has set the course for a resource-efficient and low-emissions bioeconomy, including bio-based economy, reconciling agriculture, biodiversity, environmental safety, while promoting the displacement of fossil-based products with bio-based surrogates. The bio-based economy is expected to grow rapidly creating new markets and jobs. The traditional petrol-based chemical industry is the one suffering more from its dependence on depleting resources thus pushing the search for innovative applicable renewable alternatives (Monteiro de Espinosa and Meier, 2011). Apart from their renewability, vegetable oils offer many advantages such as: world-wide availability, similarity to petrol derivates and prices that, even if much higher than petrol counterparts, are considered adequate (Monteiro de Espinosa and Meier, 2011).

Diverse chemistry could be easily applied on vegetable oils, leading to a large variety of monomers and polymers, highly requested by diverse bio-based industries, such those producing: surfactants, cosmetic products, lubricants, polymers, etc. For long it has been considered that oil and fat consumption was shared among food, feed, and industrial use in the ratio 80:6:14, but with the increasing production of biofuels (i.e., biodiesel) this is probably now close to 74:6:20 (Metzger, 2009). The current global production of vegetable fats is covered for 75% by commodity oilseeds (Tab. 1), such as soybean, oil palm, cottonseed, rapeseed and sunflower, while the remaining 25% is derived from minor oilseeds generally characterized by infrequent fatty acids (FA) in terms of carbon chain length, double bound position, and functional groups.

Table 1

Major commodity oils at global and European level (FAOSTAT 2013). Oil composition is reported only for the principal fatty acids (source: CHEMPRO).

Although the demand by industry for unusual FAs has been always high and variegate, widely grown oilseeds (Tab. 1) mainly contain only five major FAs in their oil: palmitic (C16:0), stearic (C18:0), oleic (C18:1), linoleic (C18:2) and α-linolenic acids (C18:3) (Carlsson et al., 2011). Looking at the EU situation (Tab. 1), only mono and poly unsaturated FAs (MUFA and PUFA) are obtained by domestic grown oilseeds in spite of a considerable number of potential oilcrops, with variegate FA profiles, suitable to European environments, some of which (e.g. Brassica carinata, B. juncea, Crambe abyssinica and Camelina sativa) being also at a mature stage technically speaking (Zanetti et al., 2013) (Tab. 1).

Camelina (Camelina sativa (L.) Crantz) and crambe (Crambe abyssinica Hochst. ex R.E. Fries) have a unique FA profile, good agronomic performances and wide environmental adaptability, and they are also native to Mediterranean basin (Leppik and White, 1975). The unusual composition of crambe oil, containing up to 65% of erucic acid (C22:1), makes it particularly suitable to several bio-based productions such as lubricants and plasticizers. The potentiality of crambe as a source for bio-based applications has been extensively studied in Europe, USA and more recently also in Brazil, but the commercial viability has never been reached mostly due to its low productivity (Lessman, 1990; Meijer et al., 1999), high investment and energy costs for oil transformation (Bondioli et al., 1998).

Camelina was a fundamental part of human diet since the Iron Age (Zubr, 1997), thereafter it progressively declined its importance as food crop (Knorzer, 1978) with only sporadic cultivations in eastern Europe. Recently, the industrial interest on camelina has rapidly grown (Putnam et al., 1993) due to its unique FA composition and sound attractive applications such as drying oil with environmentally safe painting and coating applications similarly to linseed oil (Luehs and Friedt, 1993; Russo and Reggiani, 2012). Moreover, unlike the majority of wild-type Brassicaceae, camelina shows a rather low glucosinolate content (Lange et al., 1995), which makes the possible utilization of meal much easier.

An overview of the potentialities of camelina and crambe as new oilseed crops for European environments is presented in the next sections.

2 Description of crambe and camelina

Crambe and camelina are erect broadleaf oilseed species native to Mediterranean area and belonging to Brassicaceae family. They are characterized by high tolerance to drought and a shorter cycle compared to rapeseed. Crambe plants reach a maximum height of 1.20 m with a cycle length of 90110 days (13001500 GDD, with a base temperature of 5 °C, Meijer and Mathijssen, 1996). Crambe shows the typical Brassicaceae morphological structure (Figs. 1a and 1b) with large, oval-shaped and smooth leaves, high number of very small white flowers clustered in racemes (Fig. 1c). The fruits are little, spherical, light brown seeds borne singly at or near the terminus of the branches. Each seed is enclosed in a pod or hull (Fig. 1d) that sticks on it at harvest as part of the yield (Lessman, 1990). The presence of this persistent and firm hull (1140% of seed weight), that prevents the rapid seed emergence and worsens the establishment (Merrien et al., 2012), represents an agronomic constraint for this species. Crambe hulled seed weight is 57.5 mg per seed (Earle et al., 1966).

Alike crambe, camelina is a fast growing annual crop able to complete the cycle in only 90 days or less if seeded in springtime (12001300 GDD, with a base temperature of 4 °C, Gesch and Cermak, 2011). At full maturity, plants attain height of 0.90 m, and present a main stem with numerous lateral branches (Figs. 2b and 2e), which usually reach the same height. On the main stem, leaves are alternate on subsequent nodes; basal ones are usually oblanceolate and short-stalked (Figs. 2a and 2b), while upper ones are normally lanceolate and unstalked (Martinelli and Galasso, 2011). The number of lateral branches is extremely variable and highly dependent on both plant density and environmental conditions (Martinelli and Galasso, 2011). Camelina owns pale yellow flowers (Fig. 2c); about fifteen seeds are enclosed into each pear-shaped pods (Figs. 2d and 2e). The seed weight ranges from 0.8 to 1.8 mg (Zubr, 1997).

thumbnail Fig. 1

Crambe plant at different development stages. (a) rosette stage; (b) stem elongation and flowering induction; (c) flowers at full flowering stage; (d) pods during seed filling stage.

thumbnail Fig. 2

Camelina plant at different development stages. (a) rosette stage; (b) stem elongation; (c) full flowering; (d) pod and seeds during seed filling stage; (e) plant at full maturity.

2.1 Adaptation and establishment

Crambe and camelina can be grown in a wide range of climatic and soil conditions. Crambe is adaptable to a broad range of soils including saline and contaminated (heavy metals) ones (Artus, 2006; Paulose et al., 2010). It is also a drought tolerant crop able to grow successfully in marginal or semiarid land (Francois and Kleiman, 1990; Fowler, 1991; Lonov et al., 2013). Camelina is also characterized by high resilience and can be planted on marginal soils under semiarid conditions (Rodríguez-Rodríguez et al., 2013).

Ideally, both crambe and camelina could be grown as summer crops or winter ones; however, crambe is less tolerant than camelina to cold stress. Interestingly real winter camelina varieties (Berti et al., 2014) are now available in the market broadening the possible cultivation environment for this species. It is worth noting that optimal planting dates for both crambe and camelina are critical management issues significantly affecting the final yield and oil composition. In particular, as reported by Adamsen and Coffelt (2005) for crambe an anticipation of sowing in autumn could negatively impact seed yield, in case of frost occurrence, conversely also a delay of sowing in spring could lead to lower yield performances. For camelina, Berti et al. (2011) and Gesch and Cermak (2011) demonstrated in different environments (i.e., Chile and USA) that an anticipation of sowing in autumn is able to significantly increase seed yield, since the positive effect of milder temperatures during flowering period.

2.2 Rotation

Crop diversification is a major objective of the new CAP (Common Agricultural Policy). It has been widely documented that optimized crop rotations generally lead to a reduction of fertilizers, weeds, pests and diseases, resulting in an overall increase of cropping system sustainability (Kirkegaard et al., 2008) and a significant reduction of management costs. Intercropping, double and relay cropping show detectable environmental benefits (Gaba et al., 2015; Lithourgidis et al., 2011), and increase land equivalent ratio. In view of their short cycle, crambe and camelina are good candidates to be included in new rotational schemes, as highlighted by recent studies (Gesch and Archer, 2013; Krupinsky et al., 2006); however, information on rotational effects of these crops is very scarce and almost all related to Northern American environments. According to Gesch and Archer (2013), the yields of double-cropped soybean and sunflower with winter camelina are respectively 82% and 72% of their equivalent monocrops, but the revenues derived from the sale of camelina seeds provided net return when double cropping system was adopted. Gesch et al. (2014) confirmed also the agronomic viability of relay-cropping of soybean with winter camelina compared with respective mono-crops full-season soybean. Furthermore, in a water limited environment for dual cropping systems, the low water use (WU) of camelina would benefit the subsequent crop (Gesch and Johnson, 2015; Hunsaker et al., 2011).

To the best of our knowledge, in literature there is very limited study on the rotational effects of crambe (Allen et al., 2014; Krupinsky et al., 2006); nonetheless, in view of its short cycle, crambe would fit as a perfect preceding crop for winter cereals, freeing early the soil thus allowing tillage operations to be done on time.

Table 2

Seed yield (Mg ha-1) and oil content (%) of camelina and crambe grown in different localities of northern, central and southern Europe.

2.3 Plant nutrition

It is generally agreed that camelina and crambe need limited nitrogen fertilization; nonetheless, the information on correct N doses is still controversial: the optimal N dose for camelina was found to range from 44 to 185 kg N ha-1 (Solis et al., 2013; Urbaniak et al., 2008; Wysocki et al., 2013). Otherwise, Solis et al. (2013) found that N rates exceeding 75 kg N ha-1 negatively affect plant lodging and seed shattering. The antagonistic effect of N application on camelina oil content was observed by Johnson and Gesch (2013) and Wysocki et al. (2013). Urbaniak et al. (2008) showed a negative relationship between N fertilization and all principal FAs of camelina, with the only exception of erucic acid.

With regard to crambe, the response to soil fertility is similar to that of other Brassicaceae species such as mustard and rapeseed (Knights, 2002), but specific fertilizer recommendations are missing for this crop (de Brito et al., 2013).

2.4 Diseases and weed control

Unlike rapeseed, crambe and camelina are naturally resistant to several plant diseases (Lazzeri, 1998; Vollmann and Eynck, 2015). Crambe was found resistant to insect feeding (Anderson et al., 1992; Kmec et al., 1998) possibly in relation to the considerable glucosinolate content. Glucosinolates act in plants as natural pesticides and against herbivore predation (Martínez-Ballesta et al., 2013). Unfortunately, the competition of crambe against weeds is very low and still remains a vulnerability factor of this crop causing possible reduction on seed yield (Souza et al., 2014).

Camelina is resistant to several plant pathogens such as Alternaria spp. and Leptosphaeria maculans probably in relation to the production of antimicrobial phytoalexins in its leaves (Browne et al., 1991; Pedras et al., 1998); it is however susceptible to clubroot (Plasmodiophora brassicae Woronin), white rust (Albugo candida [Pers.] [O.] Kunze) and aster yellow (Candidatus Phytoplasma asteris) (Vollmann and Eynck, 2015). Interestingly, camelina owns allelopathic effect, releasing secondary metabolites that constrict weed development (Lovett and Jackson, 1980).

Table 3

Oil composition of camelina and crambe in comparison with high erucic acid rapeseed (Brassica napus L. HEAR) and linseed (Linum usitatissimum).

3 Productive performances

3.1 Seed yield

High seed yields are important to make new oilseeds competitive with the established crops (Meijer et al., 1999). Literature refers that camelina seed yield can be up to 2.53.2 Mg ha-1 when grown in not-limiting conditions (Gugel and Folk, 2006; Pavlista et al., 2016); crambe was shown to exceed 3 Mg ha-1 of seed yield (Adamsen and Coffelt, 2005), but values include the hull weight (Tab. 2). Fontana et al. (1998) tested crambe in the Mediterranean basin, demonstrating that adverse environmental conditions (i.e., crust formation, temperatures below 10 °C at rosette stage, and very high temperatures during seed filling) are negatively affecting yields. The major constraint to reach high seed yields in crambe seems the low heritability in the progenies and the influence of adverse environmental conditions (e.g., temperature, uneven rainfall distribution). Furthermore, the inefficient radiation use of the crambe pods during seed formation, caused by their small surface, differently from rapeseed, seems negatively impacting on final seed yields (Mejier et al., 1999).

Also camelina productive performance appears dependent on environmental conditions during the main growing phases (i.e., emergence, flowering and seed ripening). Waterlogging during reproductive phases, or persistent drought conditions decreased seed yield by 2530% (Gugel and Folk, 2006; Gesch and Cermak, 2011). Moreover, because of the small seed size (Fig. 3) a modified harvesting equipment should be adopted for camelina while for crambe the machineries for rapeseed could be easily adapted.

thumbnail Fig. 3

Details of camelina (left) and crambe (right) seeds at full maturity. Crambe seeds are singly encapsulated in hulls at harvest.

3.2 Oil production and quality

Seed quality is particularly affected by environmental factors such as temperature, precipitation, solar radiation, evapotranspiration and air circulation (Zubr, 2003). For this reason, a significant variation in seed quality can be expected across different locations and/or planting dates. Table 2 shows that oil content of camelina can vary from 26% to 43% moving from south to north Europe, respectively. Gesch and Cermak (2011) refer that the oil content of winter type camelina increased when delaying the planting date. Pecchia et al. (2014) studied winter vs. spring sown of camelina and they concluded that oil content seldom increased by anticipating the sowing to autumn. In contrast, the oil content of crambe resulted in very stable values across different environmental conditions of north and south Europe (Tab. 2).

Camelina and crambe oils are characterized by the high content of uncommon long chain FAs (Tab. 3) having specific properties (viscosity, solubility, double bound position, melting point). Camelina oil (Tab. 3) is characterized by a very high content of PUFAs (i.e., linoleic acid and linolenic acid), low erucic acid content (<5%), and high eicosenoic acid content (C20:1) (~15%), the latter being very uncommon in plants, while it is normally contained in fish oils. Eicosenoic acid could be used as a source of MCFAs (Medium Chain Fatty Acid), which nowadays are not produced in Europe being totally derived from palm and coconut oils. Camelina has an exceptional high content in tocopherols (Budin et al., 1995), the latter conferring a reasonable oxidative stability despite the high desaturation level, differently from linseed oil.

The main characteristic of crambe oil is the outstanding content of erucic acid, up to 65% of the total FAs, that is significantly higher than those accumulate in high erucic acid rapeseed (HEAR) varieties, with a maximum of 5055% (Meijer et al., 1999). Erucic acid is a very long chain MUFA with technical characteristics (oxidative stability) similar to oleic but allowing diverse chemical transformations.

As for other oil crops, environmental conditions and genotypes are considered the main factors influencing camelina and crambe FA profile (Vollmann and Ruckenbawer, 1993; Vollmann et al., 2007; Zubr, 2003). High temperatures during seed filling period interfere with the activity of enzymes responsible for PUFA metabolism (Cheesbrough, 1989), thus explaining why the temperature effect on FA composition (Schulte et al., 2013) is considerable in camelina and negligible in crambe, as the latter mainly contain MUFAs (i.e., erucic acid). Laghetti et al. (1995) confirmed that erucic acid is only lightly affected by environmental conditions.

3.3 Seed meal

Defatted camelina seed is composed of residual fats (510%), significant levels of high quality proteins (45%), soluble carbohydrates (10%) and different phytochemicals, such as glucosinolates (Zubr, 2010; Das et al., 2014). It is worth noting that compared to other Brassicaceae, not improved for this trait (e.g., “00” rapeseed), the glucosinolate content in camelina is rather low (1040 μmol g-1, Gugel and Falk, 2006), but it is anyway exceeding the legal limit (<30 μmol g-1), thus not allowing the full use as livestock feed (Russo et al., 2014). Sinapine is an alkaloidal amine found in numerous Brassicaceae, it is responsible for the bitter taste of Brassica meal thus reducing its palatability, and causing disagreeable taste of milk and meat from cows and calves fed on it. Unfortunately camelina meal contains also significant amount of sinapine, but the content is normally lower than that of conventional rapeseed meal (Colombini et al., 2014).

Crambe seed meal is also characterized by good quality proteins, but the huge amounts of glucosinolates (70150 μmol g-1) and tannins dramatically limit its use as feed (Wang et al., 2000).

Table 4

Pros and cons of crambe in Europe.

4 Uses

The growing interest for camelina and crambe is related to the wide range of products and by-products that can be obtained from their oil and crop residues. For example, high-erucic oils are fundamental raw materials for both oleochemical transformations (i.e., production of behenic, brassilic and pelargonic acids) and direct use in producing erucamide – a slip agent enabling manufacture of extreme-temperature resistant plastic films (Walker, 2004; Zanetti et al., 2006).

Several studies tested camelina and crambe as potential biodiesel crops (Fröhlich and Rice 2005; Wazilewski et al., 2013), but due to their peculiar oil composition they would likely deserve higher consideration as a source for bio-based industry. Recently camelina oil has been identified as potential feedstock for the production of aviation fuel at both European and international level (Li and Mupondwa, 2014; Natelson et al., 2015). In particular, the European project ITAKA (www.itaka-project.eu) addressed the potentiality of camelina as a source of renewable paraffinic biofuels for aviation with encouraging results. The first flights totally fuelled by camelina-derived kerosene were successfully completed in 2012. Furthermore, the high contents of ω-3 PUFAs and tocopherols (Zubr and Matthaus 2002) in the camelina oil make it of great interest also for nutritional uses. Recent studies investigating the possibility to use camelina oil in the diet of several commercial fishes (e.g., salmon, trout, etc.) showed encouraging results (Burke, 2015; Ye et al., 2016).

From the economical point of view, the valorization of by-products of camelina and crambe as source of feed protein would considerably increase the economic sustainability (Matthaus and Zubr, 2000); nonetheless, the use of crambe and camelina press cake as animal feed is thwarted by the high glucosinolate and tannin contents. Gonçalves et al. (2013) showed an interesting use of by-products from oil extraction of crambe seeds in the treatment of wastewater with high toxic metals content (e.g., Cd, Pb, Cr). Franca et al. (2014) identified crambe press cake as a suitable candidate for the productions of adsorbents to remove cationic dyes from wastewaters without previous treatment.

Table 5

Pros and cons of camelina in Europe.

5 The European Project COSMOS and the perspectives of crambe and camelina in the European bio-based economy

The EU project COSMOS (Camelina and crambe Oil crops as Sources of Medium-chain Oils for Specialty oleochemicals) started on March 2015 and will end on September 2019 (http://cosmos-h2020.eu/). The general scope of the project is to limit the European dependence on imported oils (i.e., coconut and palm kernel oils) as sources of MCFAs (C10C14) as the cost of these oils is extremely volatile. Camelina and crambe have been selected as promising candidates for substituting coconut and palm kernel oils. Considering that European customers show very low acceptance for products derived from GMOs, the project aims to develop value chains based on non-GMO oils.

According to the biorefinery concept, the whole biomass should be also valorised by converting vegetative tissues (pods, straw, leaves, etc.) to valuable fats and proteins through insect metabolism by innovative “insect biorefinery” approaches. Finally, oleochemical co-products would be also valorised as feedstocks for flavour and fragrance precursors, high value polyamides and high performance synthetic lubricant based oils.

The COSMOS project will boost the research to overcome existing limits to crambe and camelina cultivation (Tabs. 4 and 5) and demonstrate the feasible use of the whole produced biomass to obtain high added value products. In particular, for camelina the selection of improved varieties, with contemporaneous maturity and the set up of tailored harvesting machineries will drastically reduce seed losses in the short cut. For crambe, the optimization of the extraction process of glucosinolates will turn a problem into an opportunity, since they own several applications in human health, as anticancer, and agriculture, as biofumigants for crop protection. Finally to get a reliable and stable introduction of these new species in new environments COSMOS will attempt to demonstrate to farmers and farmers’ organizations the feasible use of available technologies and machineries also in crambe and camelina management.

Acknowledgments

This work was funded by the COSMOS project that has received funding from the European Union’s Horizon 2020 research and innovation programme under Grant agreement No. 635405.

References

  • Adamsen FJ, Coffelt TA. 2005. Planting date effects on flowering, seed yield, and oil content of rape and crambe cultivars. Ind. Crop. Prod. 21: 293–307. [CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  • Allen BL, Lenssen AW, Sainju UM, Caesar-TonThat T, Evans RG. 2014. Nitrogen Use in Durum and Selected Brassicaceae Oilseeds in Two-Year Rotations. Agron. J. 106: 821–830. [CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  • Anderson MD, Peng C, Weiss MJ. 1992. Crambe abyssinica Hochst., as a flea beetle resistant crop (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae). J. Econ. Entomol. 85: 594–600. [CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  • Angelini LG, Moscheni E, Colonna G, Belloni P, Bonari E. 1997. Variation in agronomic characteristics and seed oil composition of new oilseed crops in central Italy. Ind. Crop. Prod. 6: 313–323. [CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  • Artus NN. 2006. Arsenic and cadmium phytoextraction potential of crambe compared with Indian mustard. J. Plant Nutr. 29: 667–679. [CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  • Avato, P, D’Addabbo T, Leonetti P, Argentieri MP. 2013. Nematicidal potential of Brassicaceae. Phytochem. Rev. 12: 791–802 [CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  • Bernardo A, Howard-Hildige R. 2003. Camelina oil as a fuel for diesel transport engine. Ind. Crop. Prod. 17: 191–197. [CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  • Berti MT, Wilckens R, Fischer S, Solis A, Johnson B. 2011. Seeding date influence on camelina seed yield, yield components, and oil content in Chile. Ind. Crop. Prod. 34: 1258–1365. [CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  • Berti MT, Johnson B, Gesch R, et al. 2014. Energy balance of relay- and double-cropping systems for food, feed, and fuel in the north central region, USA. In proceedings of 22nd European Biomass Conference: setting the course for a biobased economy, Hamburg (Germany), 23-26/06/2014, pp. 102–107. [Google Scholar]
  • Bohinc T, Kosir IJ, Trdan S. 2013. Glucosinolates as arsenal for defending Brassicas against cabbage flea beetle (Phyllotreta spp.) attack. Zemdirbyste 100: 199–204 [CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  • Bondioli P, Folegatti L, Lazzeri L, Palmieri S, 1998. Native Crambe abyssinica oil and its derivates as renewable lubricants: an approach to improve its quality by chemical and biotechnological processes. Ind. Crop. Prod. 7: 231–238. [CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  • Browne LM, Conn KL, Ayer WA, Tewari JP. 1991. The camalexins: New phytoalexins produced in the leaves of Camelina sativa (Cruciferae). Tetrahedron 47: 3909–3914. [CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  • Budin JT, Breene WM, Putnam DH. 1995. Some compositional properties of camelina (Camelina sativa L. Crantz) seeds and oil. J. Am. Oil Chem. Soc. 72: 309–315. [CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  • Burke M. 2015. Fish oils from Camelina plants. Chem. Ind-London 79: 8. [Google Scholar]
  • Carlsson AS, Yilmaz JL, Green AG, Stymne S, Hofvander P. 2011. Replacing fossil oil with fresh oil – with what and for what? Eur. J. Lipid Sci. Technol. 113: 812–831. [CrossRef] [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
  • Cheesbrough TM. 1989. Changes in the enzymes for fatty acid synthesis and desaturation during acclimation of developing soybean seeds to altered growth temperature. Plant Physiol. 90: 760–764. [CrossRef] [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
  • Colombini S, Broderick GA, Galasso I, et al. 2014. Evaluation of Camelina sativa (L.) Crantz meal as an alternative protein source in ruminant rations. J. Sci. Food Agric. 94: 736–743. [CrossRef] [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
  • Costa LM, Resende O, Gonçalves DN, Rigo AD. 2013. Crambe seeds quality during storage in several conditions. Afr. J. Agric. Res. 8: 1258–1264. [Google Scholar]
  • Das N, Berhow MA, Angelino D, Jeffrey EH. 2014. Camelina sativa defatted seed meal contains both alkyl sulfinyl glucosinolates and quercetin that synergize bioactivity. J. Agr. Food Chem. 62: 8385–8391. [CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  • De Brito DDMC, dos Santos CD, Gonçalves FV, Castro RN, de Souza, RG. 2013. Effects of nitrate supply on plant growth, nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium accumulation, and nitrate reductase activity in crambe. J. Plant Nutr. 36: 275–283. [CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  • Dos Santos JI, Da Silva TRB, Rogério F, Santos RF, Secco D. 2013. Yield response in crambe to potassium fertilizer. Ind. Crop. Prod. 43: 297–300. [CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  • Earle FR, Peters JE, Wolff A, White GA. 1966. Compositional differences among crambe samples and between seed components. J. Am. Oil Chem. Soc. 43: 330–333. [CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  • Fontana F, Lazzeri L, Malaguti L, Galletti S. 1998. Agronomic characterization of some Crambe abyssinica genotypes in a locality of the Po Valley. Eur. J. Agron. 9: 117–126. [CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  • Fowler JL. 1991. Interaction of salinity and temperature on the germination of crambe. Agron. J. 83: 169–172. [CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  • Franca AS, Oliverira LS, Oliveira VF, Alves CCO. 2014. Potential use of Crambe abyssinica press cake as an adsorbent: batch and continuous studies. Environ. Eng. Manag. J. 13: 3025–3036. [Google Scholar]
  • Francois LE, Kleiman R. 1990. Salinity effects on vegetative growth, seed yield, and fatty acid composition of crambe. Agron. J. 82: 1110–1114. [CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  • Fröhlich A, Rice B. 2005. Evaluation of Camelina sativa oil as a feedstock for biodiesel production. Ind. Crop. Prod. 21: 25–31. [CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  • Gaba S, Lescourret F, Boudsocq S, et al. 2015. Multiple cropping systems as drivers for providing multiple ecosystem services: from concepts to design. Agric. Sustain. Dev. 35: 607–623. [CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  • Gesch RW, Archer DW. 2013. Double-cropping with winter camelina in the northern Corn Belt to produce fuel and food. Ind. Crop. Prod. 44: 718–725. [CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  • Gesch RW, Cermak SC. 2011. Sowing date and tillage effects on fall-seeded camelina in the Northern Corn Belt. Agron. J. 103: 980–987. [CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  • Gesch RW, Johnson JMF. 2015. Water use in camelina-soybean dual cropping systems. Agron. J. 107: 1098–1104. [CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  • Gesch RW, Archer DW, Berti MT. 2014. Dual cropping winter camelina with soybean in the northern corn belt. Agron. J. 106: 1735–1745. [CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  • Gonçalves AC Jr., Rubio F, Meneghel AP, Coelho GF, Dragunski DC, Strey L. 2013. The use of Crambe abyssinica seeds as adsorbent in the removal of metals from waters. R. Bras. Eng. Agríc. Ambiental. 17: 306–311. [CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  • Gugel RK, Falk KC. 2006. Agronomic and seed quality evaluation of Camelina sativa in western Canada. Can. J. Plant Sci. 86: 1047–1058. [CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  • Hunsaker DJ, French AN, Clarke TR, El-Shikha DM. 2011. Water use, crop coefficients, and irrigation management criteria for camelina production in arid regions. Irrigation Sci. 29: 27–43. [CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  • Johnson JMF, Gesch RW. 2013. Calendula and camelina response to nitrogen fertility. Ind. Crop. Prod. 43: 684–691. [CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  • Kirkegaard J, Christen O, Krupinsky J, Layzell D. 2008. Break crop benefits in temperate wheat production. Field Crop. Res. 107: 185–195. [Google Scholar]
  • Kmec P, Weiss MJ, Milbrath LR, et al. 1998. Growth analysis of crambe. Crop Sci. 38: 108–112. [CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  • Knights EG. 2002. Crambe: A North Dakota case study. a report for the rural industries research and development corporation, 25 p. [Google Scholar]
  • Knorzer KH. 1978. Evolution and spread of Gold of Pleasure (Camelina sativa S.L.). Ber. Dtsch. Bot. Ges. 91: 187–195. [Google Scholar]
  • Krupinsky JM, Tanaka DL, Merrill SD, Liebig MA, Hanson JD. 2006. Crop sequence effects of 10 crops in the northern Great Plains. Agr. Syst. 88: 227–254. [CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  • Laghetti G, Piergiovanni AR, Perrino P. 1995. Yield and oil quality in selected lines of Crambe abyssinica Hochst. ex R.E. Fries and C. hispanica L. grown in Italy. Ind. Crop. Prod. 4: 203–212. [CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  • Lange R, Schumann W, Petrzika M, Busch H, Marquard R. 1995. Glucosinolates in linseed dodder. Fat Sci. Technol. 97: 146–152. [Google Scholar]
  • Lazzeri L. Crambe (Crambe abyssinica Hochst ex R.E. Fries). In: Mosca G, ed. Oleaginose non alimentari. Bologna (Italy): Edagricole, 1998, pp. 95–101. [Google Scholar]
  • Lenssen AW, Iversen WM, Sainju UM, et al. 2012. Yield, pests and water use of durum and selected crucifer oilseeds in two-year rotations. Agron. J. 104: 1295–1304. [CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  • Leppik EE, White GA. 1975. Preliminary assessment of crambe germplasm resources. Euphytica 24: 681–689. [CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  • Lessman KJ. Crambe: a new industrial crop in limbo. In: Janick J, Simon JE, eds. Advances in new crops Portland (USA): Timber Press, 1990, pp. 217–222. [Google Scholar]
  • Li X, Mupondwa E. 2014. Life cycle assessment of camelina oil derived biodiesel and jet fuel in the Canadian Prairies. Sci. Tot. Environ. 481: 17–26. [CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  • Lithourgidis AS, Dordas CA, Damalas CA, Vlachostergios DN. 2011. Annual intercrops: an alternative pathway for sustainable agriculture. Aust. J. Crop. Sci. 5: 396–410. [Google Scholar]
  • Lonov M, Yuldasheva N, Ulchenko N, Glushenkova AI, Heuer B. 2013. Growth, development and yield of Crambe abyssinica under saline irrigation in the greenhouse. J. Agron. Crop Sci. 199: 331–339. [CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  • Lovett JV, Jackson HF. 1980. Allelopathic activity of Camelina sativa (L.) Crantz in relation to its phyllosphere bacteria. New Phytol. 86: 273–277. [CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  • Luehs W, Friedt W. Non-food uses of vegetable oils and fatty acids. In: Murphy DJ, ed. Designer oil crops, breeding, processing and biotechnology, Weinheim (Germany): VCH Verlagsgesellschaft, 1993, pp. 73–130. [Google Scholar]
  • Martinelli T, Galasso I. 2011. Phenological growth stages of Camelina sativa according to the extended BBCH scale. Ann. Appl. Biol. 158: 87–94. [CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  • Martínez-Ballesta MC, Moreno DA, Carvajal M. 2013. The physiological importance of glucosinolates on plant response to abiotic stress in Brassica. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 14: 11607–11625. [Google Scholar]
  • Matthaus B, Zubr J. 2000. Variability of specific components in Camelina sativa oilseed cakes. Ind. Crop. Prod. 12: 9–18. [CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  • Meijer WJM, Mathijssen EWJM. 1996. Analysis of crop performance in research on inulin, fibre and oilseed crops. Ind. Crop. Prod. 5: 253–264. [CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  • Meijer WJM, Mathijssen EWJM, Kreuzer AD. 1999. Low pod numbers and inefficient use of radiation are major constraints to high productivity in Crambe crops. Ind. Crop. Prod. 19: 221–233. [CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  • Merrien A, Carre P, Quinsac A. 2012. The different oleaginous resources potentially in aid of green chemistry development. OCL 19: 6–9. [CrossRef] [EDP Sciences] [Google Scholar]
  • Metzger JO. 2009. Fats and oils as renewable feedstock for chemistry. Eur. J. Lipid Sci. Technol. 111: 865–876. [CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  • Monteiro de Espinosa L, Meier MAR. 2011. Plant oils: The perfect renewable resource for polymer science?! Eur. Polym. J. 47: 837–852. [CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  • Natelson RH, Wang WC, Roberts WL, Zering KD. 2015. Technoeconomic analysis of jet fuel production from hydrolis, decarboxylation, and reforming of camelina oil. Biomass Bioenerg. 75: 23–34. [CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  • Paulose B, Kandasamy S, Dhankher OP. 2010. Expression profiling of Crambe abyssinica under arsenate stress identifies genes and gene networks involved in arsenic metabolism and detoxification. BMC Plant Biol. 10: 108. [CrossRef] [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
  • Pavlista AD, Hergert GW, Margheim JM, Isbell TA. 2016. Growth of spring camelina (Camelina sativa) under deficit irrigation in Western Nebraska. Ind. Crop. Prod. 83: 118–123. [CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  • Pecchia P, Russo R, Brambilla I, Reggiani R, Mapelli S. 2014. Biochemical seed traits of Camelina sativa – an emerging oilseed crop for biofuel: environmental and genetic influences. J. Crop. Improv. 28: 465–483. [CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  • Pedras MSC, Khan AQ, Taylor JJ. 1998. The phytoalexin camalexinis not metabolized by Phoma lingam, Alternaria brassicae, or phytopathogenic bacteria. Plant Sci. 139: 1–8. [CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  • Putnam DH, Budin JT, Field LA, Breene WM. Camelina: a promising low-input oilseed. In: Janick J, Simon JE, eds. New crops. New York (USA): Wiley, 1993, pp. 314–322. [Google Scholar]
  • Rodríguez-Rodríguez MF, Sánchez-García A, Salas JJ, Garcés R, Martìnez-Force E. 2013. Characterization of the morphological changes and fatty acids profile of developing Camelina sativa seeds. Ind. Crop. Prod. 50: 673–679. [CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  • Rogério F, Benetoli da Silva TR, Dos Santos JI, Poletine JP. 2013. Phosphorus fertilization influences grain yield and oil content in crambe. Ind. Crop. Prod. 41: 266–268. [CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  • Russo R, Reggiani R. 2012. Antinutritive compounds in twelve Camelina sativa genotypes. Am. J. Plant Sci. 3: 1408–1412. [CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  • Russo R, Galasso I, Reggiani R. 2014. Variability in glucosinolate content among Camelina species. Am. J. Plant. Sci. 5: 294–298. [CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  • Sapone A, Affatato A, Canistro D, et al. 2007. Cruciferous vegetables and lung cancer. Mutat. Ref-Rev. Mutat. 635: 146–148. [CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  • Schulte LR, Ballard T, Samarakoon T, Yao L, Vadlani P, Staggenborg S, Rezac M. 2013. Increasing growing temperature reduces content of polyunsaturated fatty acids in four oilseed crops. Ind. Crop. Prod. 51: 212–219. [CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  • Solis A, Vidal I, Paulino L, Johnson BL, Berti MT. 2013. Camelina seed yields response to nitrogen, sulphur and phosphorous fertilizer in South Central Chile. Ind. Crop. Prod. 44: 132–138. [CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  • Soto-Cerda BJ, Duguid S, Booker H, Rowland G, Diederichsen A, Cloutier S. 2014. Association mapping of seed quality traits using the Canadian Flax (Linum usitatissimum L.) core collection. Theor. Appl. Genet. 127: 881–896. [CrossRef] [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
  • Souza GSF, Vitorino HS, Fioreze ACCL, Pereira MRR, Martins D. 2014. Selectivity of herbicides in crambe crop. Ciências Agrárias Londrina 35: 161–168. [Google Scholar]
  • Toncea I, Necseriu D, Prisecaru T, Balint LN, Ghilvacs MI, Popa M. 2013. The seed’s and oil composition of Camelia – first Romanian cultivar of camelina (Camelina sativa, L. Crantz). Rom. Biotech. Lett. 18: 8594–8602. [Google Scholar]
  • Urbaniak SD, Caldwell CD, Zheljazkov VD, Lada R, Luan L. 2008. The effect of cultivar and applied nitrogen on the performance of Camelina sativa L. in the Maritime Provinces of Canada. Can. J. Plant. Sci. 88: 111–119. [CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  • Vollmann J, Eynck C. 2015. Camelina as a sustainable oilseed crop: Contributions of plant breeding and genetic engineering. Biotechnol. J. 10: 525–535. [CrossRef] [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
  • Vollmann J, Ruckenbauer P. 1993. Agronomic performance and oil quality of crambe as affected by genotype and environment. Die Bodenkultur 44: 335–343. [Google Scholar]
  • Vollmann J, Moritz T, Kargl C, Baumgartner S, Wagentristl H. 2007. Agronomic evaluation of camelina genotypes selected for seed quality characteristics. Ind. Crop. Prod. 26: 270–277. [CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  • Walker K, Non-food uses. In Gunstone FD, ed. Rapeseed and Canola oil: production, processing, properties and uses, Oxford (UK): Blackwell Publishing, 2004, pp. 154–185. [Google Scholar]
  • Wang YP, Tang JS, Chu CQ, Tian J. 2000. A preliminary study on the introduction and cultivation of Crambe abyssinica in China, an oil plant for industrial uses. Ind. Crop. Prod. 12: 47–52. [CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  • Wazilewski WT, Bariccatti RA, Martins GI, Secco D, Melegari de Souza SN, Chaves LI. 2013. Study of the methyl crambe (Crambe abyssinica Hochst) and soybean biodiesel oxidative stability. Ind. Crop. Prod. 43: 207–212. [CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  • Wysocki DJ, Chastain TG, Schillinger WF, Guy SO, Karow RS. 2013. Camelina: seed yield response to applied nitrogen and sulphur. Field Crop. Res. 145: 60–66. [CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  • Ye CL, Anderson DM, Lall SP. 2016. The effects of camelina oil and solvent extracted camelina meal on the growth, carcass composition and hindgut histology of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) parr in freshwater. Aquaculture 450: 397–404. [CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  • Zanetti F, Vamerali T, Bona S, Mosca G. 2006. Can we cultivate erucic acid in Southern Europe? It. J. Agron. 1: 3–10. [CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  • Zanetti F, Vamerali T, Mosca G. 2009. Yield and oil variability in modern varieties of high-erucic winter oilseed rape (Brassica napus L. var. oleifera) and Ethiopian mustard (Brassica carinata A. Braun) under reduced agricultural inputs. Ind. Crop. Prod. 30: 265–270. [CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  • Zanetti F, Monti A, Berti MT. 2013. Challenges and opportunities for new industrial oilseed crops in EU-27: A review. Ind. Crop. Prod. 50: 580–595. [CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  • Zubr J. 1997. Oil-seed crop: Camelina sativa. Ind. Crop. Prod. 6: 113–119. [CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  • Zubr J. 2003. Qualitative variation of Camelina sativa seed from different locations. Ind. Crop. Prod. 17: 161–169. [CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  • Zubr J. 2010. Carbohydrates, vitamins, and minerals of Camelina sativa seed. Nutr. Food Sci. 40: 523–531. [CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  • Zubr J, Matthaus B. 2002. Effects of growth conditions on fatty acids and tocopherols in Camelina sativa oil. Ind. Crop. Prod. 15: 155–162. [CrossRef] [Google Scholar]

Cite this article as: Daria Righini, Federica Zanetti, Andrea Monti. The bio-based economy can serve as the springboard for camelina and crambe to quit the limbo. OCL 2016, 23(5) D504.

All Tables

Table 1

Major commodity oils at global and European level (FAOSTAT 2013). Oil composition is reported only for the principal fatty acids (source: CHEMPRO).

Table 2

Seed yield (Mg ha-1) and oil content (%) of camelina and crambe grown in different localities of northern, central and southern Europe.

Table 3

Oil composition of camelina and crambe in comparison with high erucic acid rapeseed (Brassica napus L. HEAR) and linseed (Linum usitatissimum).

Table 4

Pros and cons of crambe in Europe.

Table 5

Pros and cons of camelina in Europe.

All Figures

thumbnail Fig. 1

Crambe plant at different development stages. (a) rosette stage; (b) stem elongation and flowering induction; (c) flowers at full flowering stage; (d) pods during seed filling stage.

In the text
thumbnail Fig. 2

Camelina plant at different development stages. (a) rosette stage; (b) stem elongation; (c) full flowering; (d) pod and seeds during seed filling stage; (e) plant at full maturity.

In the text
thumbnail Fig. 3

Details of camelina (left) and crambe (right) seeds at full maturity. Crambe seeds are singly encapsulated in hulls at harvest.

In the text

Current usage metrics show cumulative count of Article Views (full-text article views including HTML views, PDF and ePub downloads, according to the available data) and Abstracts Views on Vision4Press platform.

Data correspond to usage on the plateform after 2015. The current usage metrics is available 48-96 hours after online publication and is updated daily on week days.

Initial download of the metrics may take a while.