Parameters used to identify the CPO quality.
|Parameter||Purpose||Correlation with good CPO quality||Allowable limit||References|
|FFA content||Determination of the FFA content. Yield will be reduced when FFA content is high.||Low||< 5.0%||(Ariffin, 2001; Halim and Ngan, 2001; Nations and WHO, 2017)|
|PV||Determination of the oxidized products from the lipid peroxidation process.||Low||< 2.0 meq/kg||(Ariffin, 2001; Halim and Ngan, 2001; Malaysian Standard, 2007)|
|AV||Determination of the secondary oxidized products from the lipid peroxidation process.||Low||< 5.0||(Ariffin, 2001; Malaysian Standard, 2007)|
|IV||Determination of the unsaturated fatty acids or C=C double bonds.||Low||50.1–54.9||(Ekwenye, 2006; Malaysian Standard, 2007; Ramli et al., 2017)|
|M&I||Determination of the moisture and impurities.||Low||< 0.25%||(Ariffin, 2001; Bahadi et al., 2016; Halim and Ngan, 2001)|
|DOBI & colour||Determination of the numerical ratio of the UV absorbance of carotene to the UV absorbance of oxidative products.||High||> 2.3||(Ariffin, 2001; Halim and Ngan, 2001; Malaysian Standard, 2007)|
|Chlorine||Determination of chlorine content. Chlorine will be involved in MCPDE and GE formation.||Low||< 2 ppm||(Kadir, 2019)|
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