Different techniques for the extraction of lignans and phenolic acids.
|Microwave-assisted extraction||Flaxseed||20 mL of 70% ethanol supplemented with 0.1 M NaOH and Power of 50–150 W for 1–15 min||SDG − 16.1 mg/g, p-coumaric acid − 3.7 mg/g and Ferrulic acid − 4.1 mg/g||Beejmohun et al., 2007|
|Microwave-assisted extraction||Flaxseed hull||Ethanol concentration (0–100%, v/v), microwave energy input (50–390 W), liquid to solid ratio (5:1 to 40:1 mL g−1) and irradiation time (10–330 s)||11.7 g SECO kg−1||Zhang and Xu, 2007|
|High voltage electric discharge||Flaxseed cake||HVED 20–40 kV, Temp 20–60 °C and ethanol 0-25% for subsequent solid liquid extraction||Polyphenol diffusivity − 2.6 × 10−9 m2/s (without ethanol) and 3.0– 4.2 × 10−9 m2/s (with ethanol)||Boussetta et al., 2013|
|High performance liquid chromatography||Milled defatted flaxseed flour||Extraction by direct alkaline hydrolysis (1 M NaOH for 1 h at 20 °C) and by hydrolysis of alcoholic extracts||(+) SDG − (11.9–25.9 mg/g), p-coumaric acid − (1.2–8.5 mg/g) and ferrulic acid- (1.6–5.0 mg/g)||Eliasson et al., (2003)|
|High performance liquid chromatography||Defatted flaxseed flour and whole flaxseeds||Analytical method includes the steps of extraction, base hydrolysis, solid-phase extraction and HPLC||SDG − 11.7–24.1 mg/g in defatted flaxseed flour and 6.1–13.3 mg/g in whole flaxseeds||Johnsson et al., 2000|
|Pressurized low polarity water||Whole flaxseed||Key processing conditions includes: temperature (130, 160, 190 °C); solvent to solid ratio (90, 150 and 210 mL/g); solvent pH (4, 6.5 and 9); co-packing material (0 and 3 g glass beads)||Lignan − 21 mg/g||Ho et al., 2007|
|Accelerated solvent extractor||Flaxseed meal sticks||The influence of various production parameters was studied. Maximum production was observed at 180 °C for 15 min, 1.500 psi and 40% fresh water using 5 g of flaxseed meal sticks||Lignan − 72.57%||Kanmaz, 2014|
|Cellulose assisted extraction||Flax hull||Extraction of secoisolariciresinol by using different enzymes (cellulase, β glycosidase and α glycosidase)||SDG − 40.75 mg g−1 (flaxseed hull) and 15.20 mg g−1 in whole flaxseed||Renouard et al., 2010|
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