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Table 2

Different techniques for the extraction of lignans and phenolic acids.

Techniques Source Strategy Outcome Reference
Microwave-assisted extraction Flaxseed 20 mL of 70% ethanol supplemented with 0.1 M NaOH and Power of 50–150 W for 1–15 min SDG − 16.1 mg/g, p-coumaric acid − 3.7 mg/g and Ferrulic acid − 4.1 mg/g Beejmohun et al., 2007
Microwave-assisted extraction Flaxseed hull Ethanol concentration (0–100%, v/v), microwave energy input (50–390 W), liquid to solid ratio (5:1 to 40:1 mL g−1) and irradiation time (10–330 s) 11.7 g SECO kg−1 Zhang and Xu, 2007
High voltage electric discharge Flaxseed cake HVED 20–40 kV, Temp 20–60 °C and ethanol 0-25% for subsequent solid liquid extraction Polyphenol diffusivity − 2.6 × 10−9 m2/s (without ethanol) and 3.0– 4.2 × 10−9 m2/s (with ethanol) Boussetta et al., 2013
High performance liquid chromatography Milled defatted flaxseed flour Extraction by direct alkaline hydrolysis (1 M NaOH for 1 h at 20 °C) and by hydrolysis of alcoholic extracts (+) SDG − (11.9–25.9 mg/g), p-coumaric acid − (1.2–8.5 mg/g) and ferrulic acid- (1.6–5.0 mg/g) Eliasson et al., (2003)
High performance liquid chromatography Defatted flaxseed flour and whole flaxseeds Analytical method includes the steps of extraction, base hydrolysis, solid-phase extraction and HPLC SDG − 11.7–24.1 mg/g in defatted flaxseed flour and 6.1–13.3 mg/g in whole flaxseeds Johnsson et al., 2000
Pressurized low polarity water Whole flaxseed Key processing conditions includes: temperature (130, 160, 190 °C); solvent to solid ratio (90, 150 and 210 mL/g); solvent pH (4, 6.5 and 9); co-packing material (0 and 3 g glass beads) Lignan − 21 mg/g Ho et al., 2007
Accelerated solvent extractor Flaxseed meal sticks The influence of various production parameters was studied. Maximum production was observed at 180 °C for 15 min, 1.500 psi and 40% fresh water using 5 g of flaxseed meal sticks Lignan − 72.57% Kanmaz, 2014
Cellulose assisted extraction Flax hull Extraction of secoisolariciresinol by using different enzymes (cellulase, β glycosidase and α glycosidase) SDG − 40.75 mg g−1 (flaxseed hull) and 15.20 mg g−1 in whole flaxseed Renouard et al., 2010

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