Open Access
Issue
OCL
Volume 22, Number 6, November-December 2015
Article Number D606
Number of page(s) 7
Section Dossier: Flax and hemp / Lin et chanvre
DOI https://doi.org/10.1051/ocl/2015038
Published online 02 October 2015

© K. Gutte et al., Published by EDP Sciences, 2015

Licence Creative Commons
This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

1 Introduction

Flax (Linum usitatissimum L.) is an annual plant belonging to the genus Linum and the family Linaceae (Sultan, 1992). Different cultivars of Linum have been developed for production of fibre and oilseed. Cultivars of Linum used for fibre use are called flax, whereas the oilseed cultivars called linseed, oilseed flax or just flax. Flaxseed is also known with different local names such as Alsi, Jawas, and Aksebija. The sensory attributes of flaxseed showed crisp and chewy texture and pleasant nutty taste (Carter, 1996). The important flaxseed growing countries include Canada, China, Russia, India, United States, and Ethiopia. Canada is the world’s largest producer of flaxseed (368.300 MT), whereas India rank forth (214.38 MT) (FAOSTAT, 2013). In India, flaxseed is mainly cultivated in Madhya Pradesh, Uttar Pradesh, Bihar, Chattisgarh and Maharashtra (AGROPEDIA, 2014).

Flaxseed is the richest plant source of the ω-3 fatty acid i.e. α- linolenic acid (ALA) (Gutte et al., 2015). Flaxseed oil is low in saturated fatty acids (9%), moderate in monosaturated fatty acids (18%), and rich in polyunsaturated fatty acid (73%) (Cunnane et al., 1993). ALA can be metabolized in the body into docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) (ω-3) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) (ω-3) due to the action of some kinds of enzyme (Chen, et al., 2002). The health benefits of all ω-3 fatty acids (ALA, EPA and DHA) have been widely reported for several conditions including cardiovascular disease, hypertension, diabetes, cancer, arthritis, osteoporosis, autoimmune and neurological disorders (Gogus and Smith 2010; Simopoulos, 2000). Flaxseed also used in minimization of diseases such as hyperlipidemia (Vijaimohan et al., 2006), colon tumor (Dwivedi et al., 2005), mammary cancer (Thompson et al., 1996; Wang et al., 2005), atherosclerosis (Prasad, 1997; Yamashita, 2005).

Edible oil commonly extracted by conventional mechanical press, mechanical screw presses (oil expellers) and solvent extraction with organic solvents. The conventional mechanical press bears many impurities such as free fatty acids, coloured and others gummy materials which are known to be detrimental to oil flavour and stability (Bera et al., 2004). Mechanical screw presses (oil expellers) are relatively inefficient, leaving about 8–14% of available oil in the de-oiled cake (Singh and Bargale, 2000). Organic solvent extraction is dependent on various factors such as the nature of the solvent, reaction time, size of seeds, process temperature and the solid/solvent ratio. The most severe shortcomings of solvent extraction are the long-time involved and the larger volumes of organic solvents are not desirable can harmful to human and environment released in the atmosphere.

The recent studies have shown that the ultrasound-assisted extraction of can enhance the extraction efficiency through acoustic cavitation and some mechanical effects (Chemat et al., 2012, 2004; Rostagno et al., 2003). Acoustic cavitation can disrupt cell walls facilitating solvent to penetrate into the plant material and allowing the intracellular product release. Another mechanical effect caused by ultrasound may also be the agitation of the solvent used for extraction, thus increasing the contact surface area between the solvent and targeted compounds by permitting greater penetration of solvent into the sample matrix. The ultrasonic-assisted extraction (UAE) also required shorter extraction times and reduced solvent consumption (Li et al., 2004; Mason et al., 2011; Nazir et al., 2009; Zhang et al., 2008). Whereas Hromadkova et al. (1999) reported that, ultrasound-assisted extraction can be carried out at a lower temperature which can avoid thermal damage to the extracts and minimize the loss of bioactive compounds.

The aim of this study was to determine the effects of ultrasonic assisted extraction on yield of flaxseed oil and fatty acid profile of flaxseed oil. The results from UAE were compared with that obtained from the conventional solvent extraction and the fatty acid compositions of flaxseed oils extracted by UAE was measured using gas chromatography (GC) to investigate the effect of ultrasound on the quality of flaxseed oil extracted.

2 Materials and methods

2.1 Flaxseed

Flaxseed (Linum usitatissimum L.) procured from a farmer market from Gangakhed, District Parbhani, Maharashtra, India. The flaxseed was cleaned to remove the foreign materials such as other seeds, stones and small stalks. These flaxseeds were stored in dry and cool place until further use.

2.2 Screening of different solvents for extraction oil from flaxseed

Different polar and non-polar solvents namely methanol, acetone, petroleum ether, n-hexane and dichloromethane were screened to check the extractability of flaxseed. The samples of grinded flaxseed (10 g) were placed in 250 ml beaker. In extraction solid to solvent ratio (1:10 w/v.) was maintained. This mixture was agitated with magnetic stirrer at 100 rpm for 10 min and the samples were hold for overnight. The obtained micelle was filtered using a vacuum filtration to remove suspended solids. Subsequently, the solvent was evaporated from the oil using rotary vacuum evaporator and extracted oil was collected in the receiving flask.

2.3 Ultrasound-assisted extraction of oil from flaxseed

The UAE experiments, a 250 W, 20 to 100 kHz ultrasonic emulsifier with a 2.00 cm flat tip probe were used. The ultrasonic output power could be set to a desired level ranging from 0 to 100% of the nominal power by the amplitude controller. Ultrasonic output powers were determined calorimetrically and ranged from 10 to 100 W according to the method described by Li et al. (2004). The ultrasound-assisted extraction used in this study was similar to that described by Zhao et al. (2007) with slight modifications. The flaxseed powder was mixed in 100 ml n-hexane contained in a 250 ml plastic beaker. The ultrasonic probe was inserted into the mixture directly. The samples were extracted under continuous ultrasonic waves at 20 kHz to 100 kHz at different levels of power output. During extraction, the temperature was controlled at a desired level within ±1 °C. Further the extracts were carried out similarly as the procedure described in conventional method.

Table 1

Fatty acid composition (% of total fatty acids) of flaxseed oil extracted by different methods.

2.4 Yield determination

The yield of extracted oil from flaxseed was calculated as follows

where,

We = weight of extracted oil and Wt = weight of sample taken for extraction.

2.5 Gas chromatographic analysis

Fatty acid compositions of the oils extracted by conventional method and ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE) were determined by Gas Chromatography (GC). The extracts were converted to fatty acid methyl esters (FAME) for subsequent chromatographic analysis. Obtaining fatty acid methyl esters (FAME) initially, the oil samples obtained were esterified according to the AOAC (2000) method and injected into the chromatograph. FAME separation and identification were carried out on the gas chromatograph. Chromatography was performed with Unicam 610 Series gas chromatograph equipped with a flame-ionization detector and a 60m × 0.25mm i.d. column coated with a 0.25 μm film of HP-23. Split injection (split ratio 1:50) was performed, with hydrogen as carrier gas at a flow rate of 43 m s-1. The column temperature was maintained at 160 °C for 1 min after injection then programmed at 2.75°min-1 to 215 °C, which was held for 2 min, and then at 40°min-1 to 230 °C, which was held for 2 min. The injection port and detector temperatures were 270 °C.

3 Results and discussion

3.1 Effect of different solvents on extraction of oil from flaxseed

Various polar and non-polar solvents were screened for their efficiency to extract oil from flaxseed on the basis of yield obtained were recorded and presented in Table 1. The extraction yield with hexane was highest (14.53%) followed by dichloromethane (13.37%), petroleum ether (13.09%), ethanol (12.78%), acetone (11.00%) and methanol (9.68%), respectively (Fig. 1). This could be attributed to a general understanding that more percentage of non-polar lipids in comparison to polar lipids (glycol and phospo) in plant seeds (Dhoot et al., 2011; Matthus and Bruhl, 2001), since seeds contain both polar and non-polar lipids combination of polar and non-polar solvents were studied. Ethanol has a worthy candidate to investigate as an alternative solvent, since it has low cost and it may be produced from a large variety of biological materials using simple technology (Suzana et al., 2003). Other studies shown that drying methods have significant effects on oil extraction efficiency, physical properties and chemical compositions of aromatic plants (Hsu et al., 2003; Omidbaigi et al., 2004). Several studies have been carried out, both at laboratory and pilot scales, aimed to replace hexane with other hydrocarbons (Conkerton et al., 1995; Wan et al., 1995), or alcohols (Sineiro et al., 1998), as solvents for oil extraction. Among hydrocarbon solvents, heptane and iso-hexane were recommended as potential substitutes for hexane to extract oil from cotton seeds (Conkerton et al., 1995; Wan et al., 1995). With respect to the use of alcohol, iso-propanol and ethanol were the most promising solvents for the oil extraction from cotton seeds (Hron et al., 1995).

thumbnail Fig. 1

Effect of different solvents on extraction of oil from flaxseeds.

thumbnail Fig. 2

Effect of ultrasonic frequency on yield of flaxseed oil.

3.2 Optimization of ultrasound assisted extraction of flaxseed oil

3.2.1 Effect of ultrasonic frequencies

The flaxseeds were treated with different ultrasonic frequencies and obtained results are depicted in Figure 2. It was reviewed from the figure that the extraction of oil was gradually increasing with increase in the ultrasonic frequency. As the larger amplitude ultrasonic wave travelled through a liquid medium, more bubbles were created and collapsed (Hemwimol et al., 2006). Since the temperature and pressure were very high inside the bubbles and the collapse of bubbles occurred over very short time, the violent shock wave and high-speed jet were generated which could enhance the penetration of the solvent into the cell tissues and accelerate the intracellular product release into the solvent by disrupting the cell walls. Moreover, the violent shock wave and high-speed jet might have caused the molecules to mix better enhancing the mass transfer rate. Due to the presence of the hard cell walls which are not so permeable, the large increase in ultrasonic power resulted in a moderate rise in yield. Similar results were obtained by Li et al. (2004) and Sivakumar et al. (2007), in the ultrasound-assisted extraction of oil from soybean and tannin from myrobalan nut.

thumbnail Fig. 3

Effect of ultrasonic extraction time on yield of flaxseed oil.

3.2.2 Effect of time

The extraction time is an important parameter for oil extraction. Extractions of oil from flaxseed at different times were carried out and obtained results are depicted in Figure 3. As the extraction time increases the yield of oil was increased up to 40 min and slightly lowered after 40 min. This process indicates that the effect of ultrasound is more effective in the first 40 min. It may be that ultrasonic wave could disrupt the cell walls, so larger contact area between solvent and material was created and more oil was appeared on the surface in ultrasonic assisted extraction than that in maceration extraction. However, this effect would be increasingly weak on the inner cell walls as the distance is increased. It should be noted that both processes occur very rapidly at the beginning of the extractions. Ultrasonic assisted extraction has the greatest rise in yield. Perhaps the ultrasonic waves affect the mass transfer rate mainly in the solvent penetration stage. It should of course also enhance the dissolved oil to transfer out of the solid structure. Similar findings were reported by Zhao et al. (2007), Hemwimol et al. (2006) and Balachandran et al. (2006). In the research of Balachandran et al. (2006), it had been confirmed that the ultrasound continued to be effective even during the later stage of extraction through an enhancement to the internal diffusivity, although the effects were smaller. In any case, based on the results so far, 30 min was found to be an optimum operating time for ultrasonic assisted extraction.

thumbnail Fig. 4

Effect of ultrasonic temperature on yield of flaxseed oil.

3.2.3 Effect of temperature

The flaxseed samples was pre-treated with ultrasonic treatment at various temperatures i.e. 25 °C, 30 °C, 35 °C, 40 °C, 45 °C and 50 °C. The yield of oil is gradually increasing with increase in the temperature up to 40 °C, whereas beyond 40 °C there was no significant effect on extraction (Fig. 4). An increase of temperature reduces the oil kinematic viscosity with an increasing mobility of biopolymers in cellular walls. Based on these findings reflux temperature (around 80 °C) was taken as optimum temperature for better yield (Panchal et al., 2014). This is surprising as well, one reason for this may be that the vapour pressure of solvent increased with the increase of temperature and the vapour pressure had a great influence on the occurrence and the intensity of acoustic cavitation. At lower temperature, the vapor pressure is lower. Ultrasound produces a few cavitational bubbles as a result of high acoustic cavitation threshold. However, the bubbles explode with relatively greater force, which enhanced cell tissues disruption during extraction. At higher temperature, the vapor pressure was higher and more bubbles were created, but they collapsed with less intensity due to a smaller pressure difference between inside and outside of bubbles (Hromadkova et al., 1999). Another reason may be due to the surface tension which decreased with the increase of temperature affecting the bubble formation and collapse. The bubbles may be so easily collapsed at higher temperature thus reducing the intensity of the mass transfer enhancement.

thumbnail Fig. 5

Effect of solid to solvent ratio on extraction of flaxseed oil.

3.2.4 Effect of solid to solvent ratio

The ratio of solid to solvent is important parameter for oil extraction process. Different solid to solvent ratio i.e. 1:5, 1:10, and 1:15 w/v was used for experiment and obtained results are presented in Figure 5. The recovery of oil was increased with increase in solid to solvent ratio. The highest oil recovery found at observed when the solid to solvent ratio 1:10 w/v. The larger liquid (solvent) to solid ratio means a larger concentration difference which facilitates mass transfer. When the liquid to solid ratio is small, this effect is more obvious. Too much liquid would not change much of the driving force any more as the limitation to mass transfer is more confined to the solid interior. Again, ultrasonic assisted extraction outperformed macerated extraction at all liquid-solid ratios tested here. Similar result has also been shown by Zhao et al. (2007).

3.2.5 Effect of ultrasonic assisted extraction on fatty acid profile of flaxseed oil

The fatty acid compositions of flaxseed oil extracted by ultrasonic assisted extraction and solvent extraction are given in Table 1. The fatty acid recorded in solvent extraction method and ultrasonic assisted extraction methods were saturated fatty acids (12.87% and 10.44%), monounsaturated fatty acids (20.56% and 21.44%) and polyunsaturated fatty acids (66.56% and 68.12%), respectively. The results showed that ultrasonic assisted extraction improved extraction of all fatty acids and significant observation was recorded in polyunsaturated fatty acids. The major fatty acids observed includes saturated fatty acid such as palmitic acid (16:0), stearic acid (18:0), arachidic acid (20:0), behenic acid (22:0) and lignoceric acid (24:0); monounsaturated fatty acids such as oleic acid (18:1 n-9c), gondoic acid (20:1) and nervonic acid (24:1) and polyunsaturated fatty acids such as linoleic acid (18:2 n-6c), γ-linolenic acid (18:3 n-6) and α-linolenic acid (18:3 n-3) (Metherel et al., 2009).

Individual fatty acid determinations were most similar to the solvent extraction method with ultrasonic assisted extraction method. Ultrasound-assisted extractions in resulted in a fatty acid profile similar to solvent extraction but palmitic acid (16:0) and stearic acid (18:0) were significantly lower whereas other saturated fatty acid did not showed significant difference. The extraction of mono and poly unsaturated fatty acid such as oleic acid (18:1 n-9c), linoleic acid (18:2 n-6c), γ-linolenic acid (18:3 n-6) and α-linolenic acid (18:3 n-3) were substantially increased by the ultrasonic treatment. The other unsaturated fatty acid did not showed significant variation.

thumbnail Fig. 6

Chromatograph of oil extracted by solvent extraction method.

thumbnail Fig. 7

Chromatograph of oil extracted by ultrasonic method.

GC analyses combined with NIST 05 database searches confirmed the identification of fatty acid methyl esters across extraction techniques, thereby confirming quantitative measures (Figs. 6 and 7). No differences in the spectra from the standard Folch extraction and the ultrasound-assisted extractions for 20 min at 100% amplitude are seen as demonstrated for alpha-linolenic acid (18:3 n-3).

Some previous researchers have reported that the appearance of off-flavors in some food products containing lipids when subjected to ultrasounds (Pingret et al., 2012, 2013). These off flavour may be due to the oxidation of fatty acid present in the product. Chemat et al., 2004 verified oxidation in oil emulsions after sonication even when in indirect contact with the ultrasound source.

3.2.6 Sustainable approach and scale-up

The low cost of oil extraction is clearly profitable for the proposed UAE method in terms of time, energy, and improved yield. UAE allows a rapid extraction of oil from Flaxseed. Conventional methods such as solvent extraction are often time and/or energy consuming. In this study, higher extraction yield was observed with UAE. Among the others, many advantages can be pointed out when taking into account UAE of oil from flaxseed: (i) the operating procedure is faster, operative and cost reduction (time needed, energy required, equipment size) and (ii) no additional treatment and/or chemicals are required to realize experiments. An experimental pilot study was carried out in a 30 L extraction tank consisting of a quadriple output of ultrasound at 25 kHz and 4200 Watts by Virot et al. (2010) and Pingret et al. (2012). From the previous lab study, the selected conditions for the ultrasound extraction pilot study were at the optimum conditions. Although, the yield of oil from the ultrasound extraction pilot scale was equal to laboratory scale investigations and was 11.5% higher than the conventional method. The result showed that the potential use of ultrasound extraction was promising for extraction on an industrial scale. UAE could shorten the extraction time, enhance the final yield, and lower the operating temperature, which can result in considerably lowered operating costs.

4 Conclusions

The highest recovery of flaxseed oil was obtained with hexane followed by dichloromethane. Optimization study of ultrasonic treatment showed that ultrasonic frequency of 40 kHz, temperature of 30 °C, extraction time of 40 min and solid to solvent ratio: 1:10 was best for extraction of oil from flaxseed. The results of extraction showed that the ultrasonic treatment significantly increase recovery and α-Linolenic acid (ω-3) acid. This study will be helpful to improve extraction recovery and α-Linolenic acid (ω-3) acid.

References

  • AGROPEDIA. 2014. Available at http://agropedia.iitk.ac.in/content/ etymology-flax (Accessed on 12 Feb 2015). [Google Scholar]
  • AOAC. 2000. AOAC method 963.22. Methyl esters of fatty acids in oils and fats. Official methods of analysis of the AOAC, 17th edn., AOAC, Arlington, Virginia USA. [Google Scholar]
  • Balachandran S, Kentish SE, Mawson R, et al. 2006. Ultrasonic enhancement of the supercritical extraction from ginger, Ultrason. Sonochem. 13: 471–479. [CrossRef] [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
  • Bera D, Lahiri D, Nag A, et al. 2004. Novel natural antioxidant for stabilizations of edible oil: The ajowan (Carum copticum) extract case. J. Am. Oil Chem. Soc. 2: 169–173. [CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  • Carter JF. 1996. Potential of flaxseed and flaxseed oil in baked goods and other products in human nutrition, Cereal Food World 38: 753–775. [Google Scholar]
  • Chemat F, Grondin I, Costes P, et al. 2004. High power ultrasound effects on lipid oxidation of refined sunflower oil. Ultrason. Sonochem. 11: 281–285. [CrossRef] [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
  • Chemat F, Abert Vian M, Cravotto G, et al. 2012. Green extraction of natural products: Concept and principles. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 13: 8615–8627. [CrossRef] [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
  • Chen J, Stavro PM, Thompson LU, et al. 2002. Dietary flaxseed inhibits human breast cancer growth and metastasis and down regulates expression of insulin-like growth factor and epidermal growth factor receptor. Nutr. Cancer 43: 187–192. [CrossRef] [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
  • Conkerton EJ, Wan PJ, Richard OA, et al. 1995. Hexane and heptane as extraction solvents for cottonseed: a laboratoryscale study. J. Am. Oil Chem. Soc. 72: 963–965. [CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  • Cunnane SC, Ganguli S, Menard C, et al. 1993. High α-linolenic acid flaxseed (Linum usitatissimum): some nutritional properties in human. Bri. J. Nutr. 69: 443–453. [CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  • Dhoot SB, Jaju DR, Deshmukh SA, et al. 2011. Extraction of Thevetia peruviana seed oil and optimization of biodiesel production using Alkalicatalyzed methanolysis. J. Alter. Engg. Sourc. Technol. 2: 8–16. [Google Scholar]
  • Dwivedi C, Natarajan K, Matthees DP, et al. 2005. Chemopreventive effects of dietary flaxseed oil on colon tumor development. Nutr. Cancer 51: 52–58. [CrossRef] [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
  • FAOSTAT. 2013. Food and agriculture organization of the united nation. http://faostat3.fao.org/browse/Q/QC/E (Accessed on 25 Feb 2015). [Google Scholar]
  • Gogus U, Smith C. 2010. n-3 Omega fatty acids: a review of current knowledge. Int. J. Food Sci. Technol. 45: 417–436. [CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  • Gutte KB, Sahoo AK, Ranveer RC, et al. 2015. Bioactive Components of Flaxseed and its Health Benefits. Int. J. Pharma. Sci. Rev. Res. 31: 42–51. [Google Scholar]
  • Hemwimol S, Pavasant P, Shotipruk A, et al. 2006. Ultrasound-assisted extraction of anthraquinones from roots of Morinda citrifolia. Ultrason. Sonochem. 13: 543–548. [CrossRef] [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
  • Hromadkova Z, Kovacikova J, Ebringerov’a A, et al. 1999. Study of the classical and ultrasound-assisted extraction of the corn cob xylan, Ind. Crops Prod. 9: 101–109. [CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  • Hron RJ, Kuk MS, Abraham G, et al. 1995. Ethanol extraction of oil, gossypol and aflotoxin from cottonseed. J. Am. Oil Chem. Soc. 71: 417–421. [CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  • Hsu CL, Chen WL, Weng YM, et al. 2003. Chemical composition, physical properties and antioxidant activities of yam flours as affected by different drying methods. Food Chem. 83: 85–92. [CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  • Li H, Pordesimo L, Weiss J, et al. 2004. High intensity ultrasound assisted extraction of oil from soybeans. Food Res. Int. 37: 731–738. [CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  • Mason TJ, Chemat F, Vinatoru M, et al. 2011. The Extraction of Natural Products using Ultrasound or Microwaves. Curr. Organic Chem. 15: 237–247. [CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  • Matthus B, Bruhl L. 2001. Comparison of different methods for the determination of the oil content in oilseeds. J. Am. Oil Chem. Soc. 78: 95–102. [CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  • Metherel A, Taha A, Izadi H, et al. 2009. The application of ultrasound energy to increase the lipid extraction through put of solid matrix samples (flaxseed). Prostaglandins Leukot. Essent. Fatty Acids. 81: 417–423. [CrossRef] [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
  • Nazir N, Ramli N, Mangunwidjaja D, et al. 2009. Extraction, transesterification and process control in from Jatropha curcas. Eur. J. Lipid Sci. Technol. 111: 1185–1200. [CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  • Omidbaigi R, Sefidkon F, Kazemi F, et al. 2004. Influence of drying methods on the essential oil content and omposition of Roman chamomile. Flavour and Fragrance J. 19: 196–198. [CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  • Panchal B, Deshmukh S, Sharma M, et al. 2014. Optimization of oil extraction and characterization from Tamarindus indica L. seed oil. Int. J. Oil Gas Coal Eng. 2(1): 1–6. [CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  • Pingret D, Fabiano-Tixier A-S, Le Bourvellec C, et al. 2012. Lab and pilot-scale ultrasound-assisted water extraction of polyphenols from apple pomace. J. Food Eng. 111: 73–81. [CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  • Pingret D, Fabiano-Tixier A-S, Chemat F, et al. 2013. Degradation during application of ultrasound in food processing: A review. Food Control 31: 593–606. [CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  • Prasad K. 1997. Dietary flax seed in prevention of hypercholesterolemic atherosclerosis. Atherosclerosis 132: 69–76. [CrossRef] [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
  • Rostagno MA, Palma M, Barroso CG, et al. 2003. Ultrasound-assisted extraction of soy isoflavones. J. Chromatogr. A 1012: 119–128. [CrossRef] [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
  • Simopoulos AP. 2000. Human requirement for omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids. Poultry Sci. 79: 961–970. [CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  • Sineiro J, Dominguez H, Nunez MJ, et al. 1998. Ethanolic extraction of sunflower oil in a pulsing extractor. J. Am. Oil Chem. Soc. 75: 753–754. [CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  • Singh J, Bargale PC, 2000. Development of a small capacity double stage compression screw press for oil expression. J. Food Eng. 43: 75–82. [CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  • Sivakumar V, Ravi Verma V, Rao PG, et al. 2007. Studies on the use of power ultrasound in solid–liquid myrobalan extraction process. J. Clean. Prod. 15: 1813–1818. [CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  • Sultan C, Growing and harvesting of flax. In: Sharma HS, Sumere CF. Van (eds.). The biology and processing flax. Belfast: M. Publications, 1992, pp. 83–109. [Google Scholar]
  • Suzana Ferreira-Dias, Valente DG, Jose, MFA et al. 2003. Comparison between ethanol and hexane for oil extraction from Quercus suber L. fruits. Grasas. Y. Aceites 54: 378–383. [Google Scholar]
  • Thompson LU, Rickard SE, Orcheson LJ, et al. 1996. Flaxseed and its lignan and oil components reduce mammary tumor growth at a late stage of carcinogenesis. Carcinogenesis 17: 1373–1376. [CrossRef] [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
  • Vijaimohan K, Mallika Jainu KE, Sabitha S, et al. 2006. Beneficial effects of alpha linolenic acid rich flaxseed oil on growth performance and hepatic cholesterol metabolism in high fat diet fed rats. Life Sci. 79: 448–454. [CrossRef] [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
  • Virot Matthieu, Valérie Tomao, Carine Le Bourvellec, et al. 2010. Towards the industrial production of antioxidants from food processing by-products with ultrasound-assisted extraction. Ultrason. Sonochem. 17: 1066–1074. [CrossRef] [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
  • Wan PJ, Pakarinen DR, Hron RJ, et al. 1995. Alternative hydrocarbon solvents for cottonseed extraction. J. Am. Oil Chem. Soc. 72: 653–659. [CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  • Wang L, Chen JM, Thompson LU, et al. 2005. The inhibitory effect of flaxseed on the growth and metastasis of estrogen receptor negative human breast cancer xenografts is attributed to both its lignan and oil components. Int. J. Cancer 116: 793–798. [CrossRef] [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
  • Yamashita T, Oda E, Sano T, Yamashita T, et al. 2005. Varying the ratio of dietary n-6/n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid alters the tendency to thrombosis and progress of atherosclerosis in apo E–/– LDLR–/– double knockout mouse. Thrombosis Res. 116: 393–401. [CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  • Zhang ZS, Wang LJ, Li D, et al. 2008. Ultrasound assisted extraction of oil from flax seed. Sep. Puri. Technol. 62: 192–198. [CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  • Zhao S, Kwok KC, Liang H, et al. 2007. Investigation on ultrasound assisted extraction of saikosaponins from Radix Bupleuri. Sep. Puri. Technol. 55: 307–312. [CrossRef] [Google Scholar]

Cite this article as: Krishna B. Gutte, Akshaya K. Sahoo, Rahul C. Ranveer. Effect of ultrasonic treatment on extraction and fatty acid profile of flaxseed oil. OCL 2015, 22(6) D606.

All Tables

Table 1

Fatty acid composition (% of total fatty acids) of flaxseed oil extracted by different methods.

All Figures

thumbnail Fig. 1

Effect of different solvents on extraction of oil from flaxseeds.

In the text
thumbnail Fig. 2

Effect of ultrasonic frequency on yield of flaxseed oil.

In the text
thumbnail Fig. 3

Effect of ultrasonic extraction time on yield of flaxseed oil.

In the text
thumbnail Fig. 4

Effect of ultrasonic temperature on yield of flaxseed oil.

In the text
thumbnail Fig. 5

Effect of solid to solvent ratio on extraction of flaxseed oil.

In the text
thumbnail Fig. 6

Chromatograph of oil extracted by solvent extraction method.

In the text
thumbnail Fig. 7

Chromatograph of oil extracted by ultrasonic method.

In the text

Current usage metrics show cumulative count of Article Views (full-text article views including HTML views, PDF and ePub downloads, according to the available data) and Abstracts Views on Vision4Press platform.

Data correspond to usage on the plateform after 2015. The current usage metrics is available 48-96 hours after online publication and is updated daily on week days.

Initial download of the metrics may take a while.