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Table 2

Basic unit operations in palm oil mills.

Unit operation Purposes References
FFB sterilization – To deactivate lipolytic enzyme activities.
– To soften the fruit pulp.
– To ease the cracking process by heating and partial dehydration of the nuts.
– To coagulate the protein in the oil-bearing cells: prevents formation of colloidal complexes and facilitates oil clarification.
– To hydrolyze the mucilaginous materials: facilitates oil clarification.
(Kasmin et al., 2016; Owolarafe et al., 2008; Sivasothy et al., 2005)
FFB stripping – To separate mesocarp fibre and nut. (Ebongue et al., 2006)
Digestion – To destroy exocarp.
– To digest palm mesocarp into homogeneous mash.
– To enhance the oil cell breakdown process.
– To reduce the oil viscosity.
(Hosseini and Wahid, 2015; Owolarafe et al., 2008; Poku, 2002; Syahro et al., 2015)
Oil extraction – To extract oil by pressing process. (Subramaniam et al., 2010)
Oil clarification – To yield the pure oil.
– To remove water and non-oily solid.
(Subramaniam et al., 2010)

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