Basic unit operations in palm oil mills.
|FFB sterilization||– To deactivate lipolytic enzyme activities.
– To soften the fruit pulp.
– To ease the cracking process by heating and partial dehydration of the nuts.
– To coagulate the protein in the oil-bearing cells: prevents formation of colloidal complexes and facilitates oil clarification.
– To hydrolyze the mucilaginous materials: facilitates oil clarification.
|(Kasmin et al., 2016; Owolarafe et al., 2008; Sivasothy et al., 2005)|
|FFB stripping||– To separate mesocarp fibre and nut.||(Ebongue et al., 2006)|
|Digestion||– To destroy exocarp.
– To digest palm mesocarp into homogeneous mash.
– To enhance the oil cell breakdown process.
– To reduce the oil viscosity.
|(Hosseini and Wahid, 2015; Owolarafe et al., 2008; Poku, 2002; Syahro et al., 2015)|
|Oil extraction||– To extract oil by pressing process.||(Subramaniam et al., 2010)|
|Oil clarification||– To yield the pure oil.
– To remove water and non-oily solid.
|(Subramaniam et al., 2010)|
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