Volume 17, Number 5, Septembre-Octobre 2010Dossier : Les complémentarités oléagineux/protéagineux (agronomie, nutrition)
|276 - 291
|Agronomie – Environnement
|15 September 2010
Les oléoprotéagineux dans les systèmes de culture : évolution des assolements et des successions culturales depuis les années 1970 dans le bassin de la Seine
UR 055 ASTER-Mirecourt, 662, avenue Louis-Buffet, 88500
2 Département SAD, INRA, 78850 Thiverval-Grignon, France
For the last forty years oilseed and high-protein crops have undergone important changes in terms of area and localisation in France. On the Seine basin example, we show that the specialisation of the farming systems and the agricultural regions has strongly changed the cropping patterns by reducing grasslands which were replaced by a constant increase of the wheat area in a one hand and by a dramatic increase, from the eighties, of the rapeseed, field pea and sunflower areas in another hand. Then from the nineties, rapeseed has gradually replaced field pea and sunflower, the areas of which have fallen. The decrease in the number of cultivated species has led to a clear trend to the simplification and the shortening of the crop successions: short crop successions based on rapeseed (as rapeseedwheat- barley or rapeseed-wheat-wheat) and cereal successions (as wheat-wheat-wheat, wheatwheat- barley or wheat-barley-barley) have strongly increased on the Seine basin over the last twenty years. The crop succession shortening, that causes crop protection problems towards weeds, insects or diseases, is only possible in relation with an intensive use of pesticides: thus the increase of the rapeseed area is positively correlated with the increase of the average number of plant pest controls, especially with herbicides. These agricultural dynamics have negative impacts on environment and enhance the economical risks the farms have to cop with. As a consequence, a new crop diversification, supported by policy-making and agricultural production networks, seems to be a strong future issue.
Key words: cropping system / crop succession / long term evolution / agricultural specialisation / crop diversification
© John Libbey Eurotext 2010
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