Volume 14, Number 1, Janvier-Février 2007
|Page(s)||35 - 43|
|Published online||15 January 2007|
Sources connues et potentielles de DHA pour les besoins de l’homme
Laboratoire de Chimie marine, Groupe Substances marines à activité biologique EA 2160, Faculté de Pharmacie, Pôle Mer et Littoral, Université de Nantes, 2 rue de La Houssinière BP 92208
Nantes Cedex 3
This paper focuses on the production of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA; 22:6 n-3), a major ω3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) with applications in foods and pharmaceuticals. Fish oils are currently the main source of PUFA including EPA and DHA. Growing interest in PUFA properties in various fields coupled with their significance in health and dietary requirements has encouraged searching for more suitable sources of these compounds, specially DHA. Some methods in lipid extracting process now allow to get a better industrial use for fish by-products. An important objective is to find cultivated microbiological sources that delivered DHA but no EPA. Potentialities of marine bacteria, microalgae and marine protists are described. The dinoflagellate Crypthecodinium cohnii seems the most efficient microrganism for the large-scale production of DHA devoid of EPA. The marine protists Thraustochytrids offer promising possibilities for DHA and other major PUFA production. C. cohnii as well as Thraustochytrium and Schizochytrium are able to produce large biomass and lipid amounts, and DHA at levels up to 60%. The first results in the production of n-3 long-chain PUFA in transgenic plants are given.
Key words: docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) / fish by-products / marine bacteria / microalgae / polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) / transgenic plants / thraustochytrids
© John Libbey Eurotext 2007
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