Soybean / Soja
Open Access

Table 1

Main growth environments and associated root system phenotyping methods for soybean.

Growth environment Phenotyping method Advantages Disadvantages Reference
Field Root excavation Real conditions, early and advanced stages Heavy extraction, challenge of visualizing of roots, destructive, labour-intensive Allmaras et al. (1975); Pantalone et al. (1996a, 1996b); Zhao et al. (2004); Benjamin and Nielsen (2006); Ao et al. (2010); Matsuo et al. (2013); Fenta et al. (2014); Wijewardana et al. (2019)
Root excavation/rhizotrons Visualisation of RSA in 2 dimensions Kaspar et al. (1978); Kaspar et al. (1984)
Semi-field Pots/tubes Close to the field conditions (the medium used may be soil or sand) Gao et al. (2020)
Lysimeters/minirhizotrons or pots Matsuo et al. (2013)
Greenhouse Plastic tubes (mesocosms) Easy root extraction, easily repeatable Only for early stages No visualisation of RSA in 3 dimensions Fried et al. (2018); Thu et al. (2014)
Rhizotubes Non-destructive method Maslard et al. (2021)
Rhizotrons Visualisation of RSA in 2 dimensions Rapid and low-cost Dayoub et al. (2017)
Pots Mwamlima et al. (2019)
Growth chamber Minirhizotrons Dayoub et al. (2021)
Germination paper Falk et al. (2020)
Cones/tubes Manavalan et al. (2010)

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