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Schematic presentation of ER localized TAG formation pathways in oilseeds. Acyl-CoAs from the plastid are exported to the cytosol and used as substrates in glycerol transesterification reactions of the Kennedy pathway. The final product of these reactions, TAGs formed by esterification of DAG by DGAT enzyme. DAGs can also be transformed to TAGs by the action of PDAT enzyme, which uses PC as the acyl donor (PDAT pathway). The cycles of deacylation/reacylation of PC/LPC catalyzed by phospholipases (PLA2) and Acyl-CoA: Lysophosphatidylcholine Acyltransferase (LPCAT), respectively, deliver acyl-CoAs. These reactions are known as the Lands cycle and produce new or modified acyl-CoAs. PC can also serve as a donor of DAG moiety used for synthesis of TAGs (PC-derived DAG production). Detailed description of the presented pathway can be found in the text. Abbreviations: CoA: coenzyme A; CPT: CDP-choline: diacylglycerol phosphotransferase; DAG: diacylglycerol; DGAT: acyl-CoA: diacylglycerol acyltransferase; G3P: glycerol 3 phosphate; GPAT: acyl-CoA: glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase; LPA: lysophosphatidic acid; LPAT: acyl-CoA: lysophosphatidic acid acyltransferase; LPCAT: acyl-CoA: lysophosphatidylcholine acyltransferase; PA: phosphatidic acid; PAP: phosphatidic acid phosphatase; PC: phosphatidylcholine; PDCT: phosphatidylcholine diacylglycerol cholinephosphotransferase; PLC: phospholipase C; PLA2: phospholipase A2; TAG: triacylglycerol.
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