Open Access

Table 4

Recapitulation of avoided refining costs (per ton of crude oil).

Costs Conventional*
(kg/t crude oil)
Rate of reduction Cost
Cost reduction
Oil losses 32 80% 0.74 19.07
Caustic soda (100%) 3 100% 0.47 1.41
Phosphoric acid (85%) 0.7 100% 1.2 0.84
Sulfuric acid 2 100% 0.8 1.60
Bleaching earths and activated carbon 4 20% 0.65 0.52
Total 23.87

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