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Conceptual diagram of the long-term cropping system experiment (2003–2016) in Toulouse-Auzeville (Inra): each experimental phase was composed of two cycles of 3-year rotations. GL: grain legumes: 0, 1/3, 2/3); BI: low inputs; TBI: very low inputs; AE: agroecology: 100% intercropping. In the second phase of the cropping system experiment (2011–2016), sunflower was grown as sole crop after sorghum (BI), durum wheat (TBI) or as intercrop with soybean (after wheat-faba bean intercrops). The reference is the sunflower-durum wheat rotation under conventional management.
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