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A schematic diagram representing the strategies for controlling Phomopsis helianthi and the technical solutions than can be applied: 1: prophylactic methods; 2: tolerance (genetic control); 3: escape; 4: avoidance; and 5: attenuation (chemical control). Cultural control is 1 (cropping system level, before sunflower crop or on adjacent fields), 3 and 4 (crop management system, intra-field) (from Debaeke et al., 2014).
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