Volume 18, Number 3, Mai-Juin 2011Dossier : Biodiversité et cultures végétales (approches)
|Page(s)||168 - 172|
|Published online||15 May 2011|
A continuum of research projects to improve extraction of oil and proteins in oilseed plants
Inra, Institut Jean-Pierre Bourgin, UMR1318, 78000
2 UMR118 Inra, Agrocampus Ouest, Université Rennes 1, Amélioration des Plantes et Biotechnologies Végétales, BP35327, 35653 Le Rheu Cedex, France
3 Biochimie et Physiologie Moléculaire des Plantes, Institut de Biologie Intégrative des Plantes, UMR 5004, CNRS/UMR 0386, Inra/Montpellier SupAgro/Université Montpellier 2, 34060 Montpellier Cedex 1, France
4 Inra, Biopolymères Interactions Assemblages UR1268, 44316 Nantes, France
5 Cetiom, Service Transformation et Valorisation des graines oléagineuses, Rue Monge, Parc Industriel, 33600 Pessac, France
6 Ecole Supérieure de Chimie Organique et Minérale, EA 4297 Transformations intégrées de la matière renouvelable, allée du réseau Jean-Marie Buckmaster, 60200 Compiègne, France
7 Université de Technologie de Compiègne, EA 4297 Transformations intégrées de la matière renouvelable, rue Personne de Roberval, BP20529, 60205 Compiègne, France
8 Université de Bretagne Sud, BP92116, 56321 Lorient Cedex, France
Accepted: 6 June 2011
A key challenge in the actual context of fossil sources rarefaction, global warming, and of increase of the world global population, is to promote the use of molecules derived from renewable sources such as plants. Among these molecules, lipids and proteins are targets of interest. Plant lipids from oilseeds are attractive substitutes to the use of fossil oil. Till the beginning of the 20th century, numerous products used in the daily life were derived from natural renewable products. For instance, plant oil was commonly used as fuel for vehicles and was entering in the composition of paintings, lubricants etc. Unfortunately, natural oils have been progressively replaced by cheaper fossil oil in the fabrication of these products. Nowadays, fossil oils are becoming increasingly expensive being a finite comodity. It is thus important to reduce our dependence from fossil oil and develop substitution industries. Oilseeds contain important amounts of proteins which are mainly used in feed. As several kilograms of plant protein are needed to obtain one kilogram of animal protein, the interest toward using plant protein in food is reinforced. The developments of the use of plant lipids, as well as proteins are a major stakes for the competitiveness of European agriculture and industry, as well as for sustainable development. Extraction of oil and proteins from rapeseed has a significant cost, in term of energy and solvent uses, and finally affects the ultimate quality of the products (protein digestibility). In order to quantitatively extract seed reserves under mild conditions, it will be necessary to limit the amount of energy needed, and avoid any use of solvents. Ideally, seeds should be processed in a bio refinery. In this paper, we will describe how oilseeds store their reserves, and roadblocks for improving actual oilseed extraction processes. A continuum of research projects aimed at answering targeted questions will be presented, with selected results obtained.
Key words: oil / oilseed / rapeseed / oil bodies / protein bodies / oil extraction
© John Libbey Eurotext 2011
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