Table 8

Results of the mixed models applied to the 10 main performance indicators. We indicated which transformation had been applied to each indicator in the model, then the p-value associated with the year effect and the year x system interaction. We provide more detailed results for the cropping system effect: Fisher’s F value and p-value. The last column is an aid to interpretation. EBITDA: Earnings Before Interests Taxes Depreciation Amortization. yi: individual value for the considered variable. y: set of values in the entire dataset for the considered variable. y0 represents the various unit variables (y0 = 1 unit of yi) used to standardize yi, when yi is not dimensionless and used as an argument of a transcendental function, or added to the dimensionless numerical value 1. ICS: Innovative cropping system; CCS: Control cropping system.

Indicator (y) Transformation used Year
Year x System p-value p-value system F System Direction of the difference between ICS and CCS
Gross energy production (MJ.ha−1) <1e-03 0.806 <1e-03 17.1716 ICS < CCS
Energy efficiency <1e-06 0.580 0.640 0.2243 ICS ≅ CCS
Direct margins with aids (&z.euro;.ha−1) 0.025 0.776 0.090 3.8534 ICS ≅ CCS
EBITDA per unit of human work time (&z.euro;.HWU−1) <1e-04 0.269 0.029 15.9577 ICS < CCS
Total working time (h.ha−1) 0.160 0.239 0.472 0.5327 ICS ≅ CCS
Treatment Frequency Index (unitless) <1e-02 0.776 0.101 5.4448 ICS ≅ CCS
Quantity of active pesticide ingredients (g.ha−1) <1e-02 0.994 0.820 0.0611 ICS ≅ CCS
Amount of mineral nitrogen fertilizer (kg.ha−1) No transformation 0.031 0.770 <1e-06 39.8222 ICS < CCS
Total primary energy used (MJ.ha−1) <1e-03 0.936 0.030 35.2472 ICS < CCS
Total GHG emissions (teqCO2.ha−1) No transformation <1e-02 0.682 <1.e-05 35.6729 ICS < CCS

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