Factors that affect outcomes in obesity and cardiovascular disease.
|Lack to determine the composition of the background diet in terms of omega-6 and omega-3 fatty acids and inflammatory markers i.e. US, UK and Northern European countries have the highest amount of LA + AA in their diets, which competes with omega-3 PUFAs; they also have the lowest amount of vegetable and fruit intake, which are needed for optimal absorption of omega-3 PUFA from supplements|
|Some studies are using fish and others omega-3 supplements; studies show that a continuous daily intake of omega-3 supplements leads to higher concentrations in the blood than eating fish two times/week|
|Variation in the dose of omega-3 fatty acids|
|Variation in the number of subjects|
|Variation in the severity of disease|
|Variation in the pharmacologic treatment|
|Genetic variants predisposing to cardiovascular disease|
|Dietary intake by means of questionnaires instead of actual measurements of omega-3 PUFAs in the red blood cell membrane phospholipids or plasma is a major problem that leads to conflicting results|
|Length of intervention|
|Genetic variants in the metabolism of omega-6 and omega-3 fatty acids|
|Low dose of EPA and DHA against a high intake of LA and AA of the background diet|
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