Open Access

Table 2

Summary of metabolomics studies conducted in animal models of AD.

Animal model Sample Platform Findings Ref.
APPTg2576(n = 9)
WT(n = 10)
Frontal cortex NMR ↑Taurine;
↓N-acetyl-aspartate, glutamate, glutathione
(Dedeoglu et al., 2004)
APPxPS1(n = 7–8)
WT(n = 5–9)
Whole brain NMR ↑Myo-inositol, choline, glycerophosphocholine;
(Forster et al., 2012)
(n = 5/5 young/old)
(n = 4/8 young/old)
Cortex, frontal cortex, cerebellum, hippocampus, striatum, pons, midbrain, olfactory bulb NMR ↑Lactate, aspartate, glycine, alanine, leucine, isoleucine, valine, free fatty acids;
↓N-acetyl-aspartate, glutamate, glutamine, taurine, γ-aminobutyric acid, choline, phosphocholine, creatine, phosphocreatine, succinate
(Salek et al., 2010)
APP × PS1(n = 10)
WT(n = 10)
Cortex(frontal, occipital, parietal, temporal), thalamus, hippocampus NMR ↑Myo-inositol, scyllo-inositol;
(Woo et al., 2010)
APPTg2576(n = 39)
WT(n = 44)
Frontal cortex, rhinal cortex, hippocampus, cerebellum, midbrain NMR ↑Creatine, taurine;
↓glutamate, N-acetyl-aspartate, myo-inositol, phosphocholine, γ-aminobutyric acid
(Lalande et al., 2014)
APP × PS1(n = 6)
WT(n = 6)
Whole brain NMR ↓N-acetyl-aspartata, γ-aminobutyric acid, creatine, ascorbic acid (Graham et al., 2013b)
APP × PS1(n = 6)
WT(n = 6)
Plasma NMR ↓Glutamate, glutamine, methionine, acetate, citrate (Graham et al., 2013b)
APP × PS1(n = 27)
WT(n = 33)
Plasma NMR ↑Lipoproteins, triglycerides (Wu et al., 2016)
APP × PS1(n = 27)
WT(n = 33)
Liver NMR ↑Unsaturated fatty acids, 3-hydroxybutyrate, aspartate, glutamine, uridine diphosphate, uridine monophosphate, adenosine monophosphate; ↓alanine, lactate, betaine (Wu et al., 2016)
SAMP8(n = 5)
SAMR1(n = 5)
Serum NMR ↑Lactate, saturated fatty acids, alanine, methionine, glutamine, VLDL;
↓inosine, glucose, polyunsaturated fatty acids, choline, phosphocholine, HDL, LDL, 3-hydroxy-butyrate, citrate, pyruvate
(Liang et al., 2008)
APPTg2576(n = 3–5)
WT(n = 3–5)
Urine NMR ↑3-hydroxykynurenine, homogentisate, allantoin, acetate, trans-aconitate, tyrosine, hippurate, citrate, urea;
↓trigonelline, 2-oxoglutarate, dimethylamine, trimethylamine, threonine, 1-methylnicotinamide
(Fukuhara et al., 2013)
Cortex, cerebellum MS ↓Sulfatides (Cheng et al., 2010)
APP × PS1(n = 30)
WT(n = 30)
Serum MS ↑SFA-PLs, eicosanoids, triglycerides, diglycerides, choline, GPE, inosine;
↓PUFA-PLs, LPLs, cholesteryl esters, free fatty acids, urea, serine, valine, threonine, pyroglutamate, creatine, phosphoethanolamine, histidine, carnitine, glucose, tyrosine, tryptophan
(Gonzalez-Dominguez et al., 2015c)
APP × PS1(n = 30)
WT(n = 30)
Hippocampus, cortex, cerebellum, olfactory bulb MS ↑LPLs, PL(18:0/20:4), 22:5PLs, 22:4-PLs, propionyl-carnitine, free fatty acids, eicosanoids, uracil, hypoxanthine, xanthine, FAPy-adenine, adenosine, inosine, acetate, propionate, pyruvate, alanine, choline, valine, G3P, phosphocholine, N-acetyl-spermidine, GPC, GPI;
↓PUFA-PLs, acyl-carnitines, steroids, adenine, UMP, AMP, urea, aspartate, dopamine, tyrosine, homocarnosine
(Gonzalez-Dominguez et al., 2015h)
APP × PS1(n = 30)
WT(n = 30)
Liver, kidney, spleen, thymus MS Alterations in the metabolism of phospholipids, fatty acids, acyl-carnitines, eicosanoids, acyl-glycerols, steroids, amino acids, nucleotides, energy-related metabolites(changes depending on the tissue) (Gonzalez-Dominguez et al., 2015e)
APP × PS1(n = 8–9)
WT(n = 8–9)
Brain, plasma MS Longitudinal perturbations(6–18 months) in metabolism of phospholipids, amino acids, polyamines and acyl-carnitines (Pan et al., 2016)
APP × PS1 × IL4
(n = 7)
APP × PS1(n = 7)
WT(n = 7)
Serum MS ↓Urea, histamine, threonine, aspartate, urocanic acid, dopamine, citrulline, tyrosine;
↑1-methyl-histamine, eicosanoids
(Gonzalez-Dominguez et al., 2015g)
CRND8(n = 6)
WT(n = 6)
Hippocampus MS Alterations in the homeostasis of arachidonic acid, glucose metabolism and fatty acid β-oxidation (Lin et al., 2013)
CRND8(n = 6)
WT(n = 6)
Cerebellum MS ↑Eicosanoids, amino acids and derivatives, xanthosine, xanthine, urate;
↓inosine, guanosine
(Lin et al., 2014)
n = 5 (2 months)
n = 6 (7 months)
n = 7 (12 months)
Hippocampus GC-MS ↑Cholesterol, oleic acid, phosphoglyceride, N-acetyl-aspartate;
↓alanine, serine, glycine, aspartate, glutamate, γ-aminobutyric acid, malic acid, butanedioic acid, fumaric acid, citric acid, pyroglutamic acid, urea, lactic acid
(Wang HL et al., 2014)
TASTPM(n = 16)
WT(n = 5)
Whole brain GC-MS ↑D-fructose, valine, serine, threonine;
(Hu et al., 2012)
TASTPM(n = 16)
WT(n = 5)
Plasma GC-MS ↑D-glucose, d-galactose, linoleica cid, arachidonic acid, palmitic acid, gluconic acid (Hu et al., 2012)
APPTg2576(n = 15)
WT(n = 17);
CRND8(n = 9)
WT(n = 9);
APPV717I(n = 10)
WT(n = 12)
Urine GC-MS ↑Phenylacetone;
↓3-methylcyclopentanone, 4-methyl-6-hepten-3-one, 6-hydroxy-6-methyl-3-heptanone
(Kimball et al., 2016b)
CRND8(n = 12)
WT(n = 12)
Urine RP-MS ↑Methionine, desaminotyrosine, phenylacetylglycine, dihydrouracil, ureidopropionic acid, thiocysteine;
↓choline, taurine, N1-acetyl-spermidine, 5-hydroxy-indoleacetic acid, hydroxyphenylglycine
(Peng et al., 2014)
(n = 18/12,12/18 weeks)
WT(n = 12/12, 12/18 weeks)
Urine HILIC-MS Fifty-five differential metabolites involved in the homeostasis of amino acids(e.g. tryptophan, tyrosine, phenylalanine, lysine), fatty acids, purines and pyrimidines, ascorbate, and others (Tang et al., 2016)
APP × PS1(n = 30)
WT(n = 30)
Serum RP-MS/
Alterations in the metabolism of phospholipids, sphingolipids, fatty acids, cholesterol and bile acids, energy-related metabolites and amino acids (Gonzalez-Dominguez et al., 2015d)
APP × PS1(n = 30)
WT(n = 30)
Hippocampus, cortex, striatum, cerebellum, olfactory bulb RP-MS/
Alterations in the metabolism of phospholipids, sphingolipids, energy-related metabolites, amino acids and nucleotides (Gonzalez-Dominguez et al., 2014d)
APP × PS1(n = 30)
WT(n = 30)
Liver, kidney RP-MS/
Alterations in the metabolism of phospholipids, sphingolipids, fatty acids, acyl-carnitines, cholesterol and bile acids, energy-related metabolites and amino acids (Gonzalez-Dominguez et al., 2015f)
APP × PS1(n = 30)
WT(n = 30)
Spleen, thymus RP-MS/
Alterations in the metabolism of phospholipids, sphingolipids, fatty acids, acyl-carnitines, energy-related metabolites, amino acids and purines (Gonzalez-Dominguez et al., 2015i)
APPTg2576(n = 3)
PS1(n = 3)
APP × PS1(n = 6)
WT(n = 6)
Hippocampus RP-MS/
Alterations in nucleotide, TCA cycle, energy transfer, carbohydrate, neurotransmitter and amino acid metabolic pathways (Trushina et al., 2012)

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