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Table 4

Losses (%) of minor components during each step pf the refining process.

Processing stages Total Total Squalene Polyphenols
Tocopherols Phytosterols

Chemical refining process
Degumming 4 22.4 ND* ND
Neutralization 3.9–14.7 29.3 ND ND
Bleaching 5.85–7.9 ND ND ND
Winterization 0.6–4.6 5.2 ND ND
Deodorization 3.6–15.7 3.4 ND ND
Total loss 14–34 60.3 ND 90.5%
Physical refining process
Degumming 6–8.4 ND 6.9 ND
Bleaching 3.5–15.8 ND 5.3 ND
Winterization 0.8–5.8 ND 4 ND
Deodorization 20.2–25.7 ND 16.9 ND
Total loss 24.6–54.8 ND 33.1 ND

*ND = Not available data. Data from: (Alpaslan et al., 2001; Ergönül and Köseoǧlu, 2014; Karaali, 1985; Kreps et al., 2014; Nergiz and Çelikkale, 2011; Talal et al., 2013; Tasan and Demirci, 2005; Verleyen, Forcades et al., 2002).

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