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Table 1

Examples of predictive biodiversity indicators with their main characteristics (adapted from Bockstaller et al., 2011).

Name reference Taxonomic Species Expression of result Aggregation function Input variable or Scale
group (species) number component

VEM Plants 534 Probability of presence Calculation of suitability index from E.g. grazing (yes/no) Fields, farm,
(Sanderson et al., between 0 and 1 the British National Vegetation Slurry application (yes/no) landscape
1995) Classification Mineral fertilization (kg N/ha)
A probability of presence is derived
from this index

Keichinger Pheasant 1 Score between 0 Decision tree with fuzzy subsets for Soil cover Farm, landscape
(2001) Partridge 1 (maximum impact) and 10 global indicators and components Crop diversity
Field hare 1 (no impact) Machine use
Wild rabbit 1 Pesticide risk
Semi-natural area

Meyer-Aurich Amphibian Not Disturbance impact scored Continuous function E.g. number of Field, farm,
et al. (2003) explicit between 0 (none) and 1 tillage perturbation landscape
Partridge 1 (high) amount of nitrogen
number of herbicides

SALCAbd Plants Not Score between 1 (negative Each cropping practices is scored All cropping practices Field, farm
(Jeanneret et al., Mammals explicit impact) and 5 (positive and an average value is calculated
2014) Birds impact)
Snails and slugs
Carabid beetles
Bees and

Butler et al. Birds 63 Risk score between 0 Scoring system: assessing impact on E.g. spring to autumn Regional
(2009) Bumblebees 14 (none) and 3 to 6 (high) species needs (e.g. diet, forage sowing
Butterflies 23 habitats) Agrochemical inputs
Mammals 44 Loss of non-cropped
Broadleaf plants 190 habitat
Land drainage

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