Open Access

Table 1

Summary of associations of cancer risk with sun exposure and vitamin D levels.

Tumor Negative association
with sun exposure
Association with 25(OH)D blood levels Intervention trials Comments

Colorectal cancer Fairly consistent
from ecological,
case-control and
prospective studies
Consistent inverse
relationship with serum
25-hydroxyvitamin D
No effect The Lappe et al. (2007)
intervention trial cannot
disentangle effects of
calcium alone
supplementation from
Ca + vitamin D

Breast Observed in
case-control studies
Mixed results from
prospective studies
Inverse association in
case-control studies
No association in
prospective studies
No effect Too low dose of
vitamin D (400 IU/d)
in WHI intervention

Prostate All but one
case-control and
prospective studies
show negative
No association No evaluable trial Studies on sun exposure conducted in relatively low UV environment;
the only study showing a positive association
conducted in Australia

Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma Conflicting results Few studies
Current results in favor of an absence of association
No evaluable trial

Current usage metrics show cumulative count of Article Views (full-text article views including HTML views, PDF and ePub downloads, according to the available data) and Abstracts Views on Vision4Press platform.

Data correspond to usage on the plateform after 2015. The current usage metrics is available 48-96 hours after online publication and is updated daily on week days.

Initial download of the metrics may take a while.