Effects of Omega-3 Fatty Acids on Factors Involved in the Pathophysiology of Atherosclerosis and Inflammation.
|Factor||Function||Effect of w-3 fatty acid|
|Arachidonic acid||Eicosanoid precursor, aggregates platelets; stimulates white blooo cells||↓|
|Thromboxane A2||Platelet aggregation; vasoconstriction; increase of intracellular Ca++||↓|
|Prostacyclin (PGI2/3)||Prevent platelet aggregation; vasodilation; increase cAMP||↑|
|Leukotriene (LTB4)||Neutrophil chemattractant; increase of intracellular Ca++||↓|
|Fibrinogen||A member of the acute phase response; and a blood clotting factor||↓|
|Tissue pasminogen activator||Increase endogenous fibrinolysis||↑|
|Platelet activating factor (PAF)||Activates platelets and white blood cells||↓|
|Platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF)||Chemoattractant and mitogen for smooth muscles and macrophages||↓|
|Oxygen free radicals||Cellular damage; enhance LDL uptake via scavenger pathway; stimulate arachidonic acid metabolism||↓|
|Lipid hydroperoxides||Stimulate eicosanoid formation||↓|
|Interleukin 1 and tumor necrosis factor||Stimulate neutrophil O2 free radical formation; stimulate lymphocyte proliferation; stimulate PAF; express intercellular adhesion molecule-1 on endothelial cells; inhibit plasminogen activator, thus, procoagulants||↓|
|Interleukin-6||Stimulates the synthesis of all acute phase proteins involved in the inflammatory response: C-reactive protein; serum amyloid A:, fibrinogen; α1-chymotrypsin; and haptoglobin||↓|
|C-reactive protein (CRP)||An acute phase reactant and an independent risk factor for cardiovascular disease||↓|
|Endothelial-derived relaxation factor||Reduces arterial vasoconstrictor response||↓|
|Insulin function||Increases sensitivity to insulin|
|VLDL||Related to LDL and HDL level||↓|
|HDL||Decreases the risk for coronary heart disease||↑|
|Lp(a)||Lipoprotein(a) is a genetically determined protein that has atherogenic and thrombogenic properties||↓|
|Triglycerides and chylomicrons||Contribute to postprandial lipemia||↓|
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