Volume 17, Number 2, Mars-Avril 2010Extensions du domaine de l'analyse – santé, qualité, sécurité sanitaire
|Page(s)||104 - 114|
|Published online||15 March 2010|
Gene transfer from wild Helianthus to sunflower: topicalities and limits
The University of Georgia, Institute of Plant Breeding, Genetics and Genomics Center for Applied Genetic Technologies, 111 RiverbendRoad 30606 Athens, GA
2 INRA UMR DIAPC, chemin du Mezouls, 34130 Mauguio, France
3 INRA UMR DIAPC, bâtiment 33, 34060 Montpellier cedex 01, France
Sunflower (2n=17) belongs to the Helianthus genus (Asteraceae). Wild Helianthus species display morphological variation for branching and stem number, for architecture and seed size, and for resistance to abiotic and biotic stresses due to which they thrive in different environments in North America. The genus is divided into botanical sections, two for annual as sunflower, and two for perennial species as Jerusalem artichoke that produces rhizomes (tubers). We explain the difficulties and successes obtained by crossing sunflower with these species to improve the agronomic traits of the sunflower crop. It is easier to cross the annual species than the perennials’ with sunflower. Several traits such as Cytoplasmic male sterility and restorer Rf-PET1 genes, Downy mildew resistance, Phomopsis resistance, Sclerotinia resistance, Rust resistance, and Orobanche resistance have already been introduced from annual species into sunflower crop, but the complex genomic organization of these species compared to sunflower limits their important potential. Perennial species are much more diverse, and their genomes display 2n, 4n, or 6n chromosomes for n 17. The realities of inter-specific hybridization are relatively disappointing due to the introgression lines that have low oil and low seed yield. We report here several attempts to introgress agronomic traits from these species to sunflower, and we present as a case study, an introgressed progenies from H. mollis, a diploid species with sessile small leaves. We constructed a preliminary genetic map with AFLP markers in 21 BC1 plants, and we then showed that some progenies display 6 to 44% of introgression from H. mollis. Although this study is promising due to the novel compact architecture of the progenies, we cannot estimate the transferability from H. mollis to other perennial Helianthus to improve sunflower.
Key words: architecture / Helianthus mollis / introgression / sessile leaves / sunflower crop
© John Libbey Eurotext 2010
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