Volume 14, Number 6, Novembre-Décembre 2007
|Page(s)||332 - 344|
|Published online||15 November 2007|
Protection chimique des plantes cultivées et durabilité*
AFPP, allée des Graviers de la Salmouille
The use of chemicals for crop protection starts in the middle of 18th century and increase after 1850 to avoid huge losses linked with the introduction of new vine and potato diseases or pests (e.g. vine downy and powdery mildew, Colorado beetle...). Before 1940, most of the fungicides, insecticides or herbicides are obtained from inorganic chemistry. The introduction of organic compounds increased after 1945. Nature of plant protection products range change after 1980 with an increasing percentage of new active ingredients (ais) based on natural active molecules (pyrethroids, tricetones...). At the end of the last century, the total number of ais registered in France reached 570.Following the implementation of EU review, we note a sharp decrease of ais number and diversity, quicker than the capacity of research to provide to their replacement. In 2010, choice could be limited in EU to less than 250 ais. This trend represents a major threat for agriculture if we want to maintain our capacity to manage minor and even major diseases, pests and weeds. To be sustainable, crop protection must use all the existing tools, mechanical, biological and chemical. In the future, sustainable use of chemicals appears to be linked with an approach based on integrated control principles – including indirect protection measures – the maintain of a large panel of chemicals solutions to prevent resistances and to get the process of research creativity going.
Key words: sustainable crop protection / chemistry
© John Libbey Eurotext 2007
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