Volume 14, Number 1, Janvier-Février 2007
|Page(s)||16 - 24|
|Published online||15 January 2007|
Acide docosahexaénoïque et maladie d’Alzheimer : des raisons d’espérer ?
Jeune Équipe Lipidomix, JE 2482, Laboratoire de Médecine et Thérapeutique Moléculaire, INPL, Nancy-Université, 15 rue du Bois de la Champelle, 54505
Alzheimer’s disease is a major public health concern in all developped countries. Although the precise cause of Alzheimer’s disease is still unknown, soluble oligomers of the neurotoxic hydrophobic amyloid-β (Aβ) peptide are known to play a critical role. Aging is associated with a loss of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) in brain tissues in which it is the main polyunsaturated fatty acid. Epidemiological studies on human populations suggested that diets enriched in ω3 fatty acids are associated with reduced risk of Alzheimer’s disease. Furthermore, patients affected by Alzheimer’s disease display lower levels of DHA in plasma and brain tissues as compared to control subjects of same age. Studies on animals showed that diets enriched with DHA limit the synaptic loss and cognitive defects induced by the Aβ peptide. Several mechanisms have been proposed for this protective effects. DHA can induce the expression of potentially protective genes. Conversion of DHA into neuroprotectins has been shown to be alternatively involved in the protection against the Aβ peptide. Eventually, results have been provided suggesting that particular membrane microdomains could be remodelled and subsequently be involved in the neuroprotective process induced by DHA.
Key words: Alzheimer’s disease / docosahexaenoic acid / public health
© John Libbey Eurotext 2007
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