Volume 12, Number 3, Mai-Juin 2005
|Page(s)||261 - 271|
|Published online||15 May 2005|
Effets allélopathiques des Brassicacées via leurs actions sur les agents pathogènes telluriques et les mycorhizes : analyse bibliographique. Partie 1
CETIOM, BP 4, 78850 Thiverval-Grignon
2 ARVALIS Institut du végétal, 91720 Boigneville
3 INA Paris-Grignon, UMR d’agronomie INRA/INA P-G, BP 1, 78850 Thiverval-Grignon
4 INRA, UMR d’agronomie INRA/INA P-G, BP 1, 78850 Thiverval-Grignon
5 INRA, UMR INRA-ENSA Rennes Bio3P, BP 35327, 35653 Le Rheu, cedex
6 INRA, Unité d’agronomie Laon-Reims-Mons, BP 224, 51686 Reims, cedex 2
7 INRA, UMR INRA-ENITA Bordeaux « Transfert sol-plante et Cycle des Eléments Minéraux dans les écosystèmes cultivés », BP 81, 33883 Villenave d’Ornon, cedex
8 INRA Dijon, BP 86510, 21065 Dijon cedex
Accepté : 11 Février 2005
Brassicas contain glucosinolates (GSL) which decomposition is able to reduce the growth of populations of soil-borne fungi, bacterias or nematodes. These biocid effects on soil-borne microorganisms make a form of allelopathy phenomenon. The allelopathic properties depends on the GLS composition of the Brassicas: Indian mustard and in a lower extend Oilseed rape could have the most powerfull action, White mustard would have a weaker action. These properties also depends on crop residues: green manure with quick decomposition would result with a higher action than crop residues after grain harvest.
The main mechanisms are known. In vitro, isothiocyanates obtained from the GSL decomposition inhibit all the phases of the cycle of Aphanomyces eutiches, the fungus responsible for root rot of peas. The mycelian growth of Gaeumannomyces graminis tritici, the fungus responsible for the wheat take all is inhibited by some isothyocyanates at low concentration.
Furthermore, several studies give the evidence that the incorporation of Brassicas residues into the soil does inhibit the growth of both soil-borne pathogens. At last, the presence of roots of Brassicas inhibits the germination of the mycorhizes known to improve the mineral nutrition of its host plant. This phenomenon could explain the depressive effect of oilseed rape on the nutrition of a subsequent maize. This knowledge of Brassicas effects into cropping systems offers issues for a better management of precedent effects of Brassicas; these effects being positive (integrated cop protection) or negative (management of subsequent crop nutrition after Brassicas).
Key words: allelopathy / Brassicas / glucosinolates / soil-borne pathogens / mycorrhizas
© John Libbey Eurotext 2005
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