Table 1

List of the main mineral and plant-based waxes used in the formulation of lipsticks.

Mineral waxes

Commercial Name INCI name Composition Melting point (°C)
Ceresin Ceresin Linear and cyclic hydrocarbons C29-C35 55–80
Microcristalline wax Cera Microcristallina Branched alkanes C31-C70 60–95
Paraffin wax Paraffin Linear and cyclic hydrocarbons C16-C40 50–70
Plant-based waxes

Commercial Name INCI name Composition Melting point (°C)

Candelilla wax Candelilla Cera (Euphorbia Cerifera (Candelilla) Wax) Hydrocarbons, esters, fatty alcohols and resins 68–73
Carnauba wax Cera Carnauba (Copernicia Cerifera (Carnauba) Wax) Long chains fatty esters 80–86
Rice wax/Rice Bran wax Oryza Sativa Cera (Oryza Sativa (Rice) Bran Wax) Esters, fatty acids and alcohol 75–82
Sunflower wax Helianthus Annus Cera Seed (Helianthus Annus (Sunflower) Seed Wax Very long chains fatty esters (C40-C60) 74–77

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