|Cropping system||Intermediate effect||Effect on blackgrass|
|Tillage and mechanical weeding||Soil structure||Soil compaction increases mortality of germinated seeds|
|Soil movements = f(soil structure)||Seed burial decreases germination and increases pre-emergent mortality due to insufficient seed reserve. Seeds on soil surface germinate badly because of insufficient seed-soil contact Germinated seeds close to soil surface often die because the top soil dries faster.|
|Exposes imbibed seeds to light if inverting tool, thus breaking dormancy|
|Triggers germination flush if moist soil|
|Destroys germinated seeds, seedlings and plants|
|Crop||Choice of cultivation techniques||See effects of techniques|
|Occupies space, uses water and nutrients||Decreases components of weed seed production (plant survival, tillers/plant, heads/tiller, flowers/head, seeds/flower)|
|Seed return to soil seed bank is reduced by crop canopies in multi-annual crops (e.g. grassland, permanent living mulch)|
|Sowing date||Crop emergence date||The earlier the weed seedlings emerge relative to the crop, the better they survive and tiller|
|Date of last tillage||The later the last tillage, the more weed seeds have germinated already and are killed by the tillage|
|Sowing density||Crop density||Increases weed seedling mortality|
|Herbicides||Weed mortality = f(active ingredient, conditions) Weed mortality decreases with plant density, seed depth (for root-acting herbicides) and weed stage|
Decreases tillering on surviving plants
|Mowing||Destroys tillers and heads. Plants with mature heads die; the remaining tiller again but usually produce less seeds|
|Conditions during seed production||Influence dormancy level and germination rates of newly produced seeds|
|Harvest||Destruction of all plants|
Each time plants are destroyed, their seed production, if any, is added to the seed bank.
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