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Drawings of chromosome pairing and rearrangements. A. pairing in reciprocal translocation, B. chromosomal composition and abortion (/) in a backcross. C: indel deletion/insertion; D inversion of a central segment; E deletion; F duplication; G inversion; H reciprocal translocation; I mutation consequences. I. Different chromosomal rearrangements lead to five consequences. Case 1: The nucleotide change C to T does not modify anything in the amino acid sequence, it is a synonymous change. Case 2: A to G mutation is a transition, but no amino acid change. Case 3: A to C mutation is a tranversion, with amino acid change, leucine becomes valine. Case 4: C insertion changes other amino acid because of a frame shift; Case 5: Mutation G to A introduces a stop codon, consequently the amino acid chain is interrupted.
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