Raffinage des huiles et des corps gras et élimination des contaminants
Xavier Pages*, Odile Morin**, Céline Birot, Marie Gaud, Stéphane Fazeuilh et Morgan Gouband
ITERG, institut des corps gras, 11, rue Gaspard-Monge, 33600
Refining is a powerful technology to guarantee a high food grade quality of the refined oils and fats. This overview of many of the safety challenges related to different contaminant residues, the refining processes have to and actually do respond to, focuses for each contaminant (pesticides, polycyclic hydrocarbons, other compounds as extraction solvent, metallic element traces, aflatoxins, dioxins and polychlorobiphenyls, and new appearing contaminants like phthalates and 3-monochloropropanediol esters) on their nature, origin, occurrence and regulatory status before describing the required conditions of their elimination by chemical and “physical” refining with the mention of the most efficient refining step as known from the GMP or identified from original experimental works. Identifying the physicochemical characteristics (hydro-solubility, lipophilic property, molecular weight and vapour pressure) indicative of a potential contaminant behaviour during refining is an interesting preliminary orientation tool. The quality target for refined oils and fats include on one hand the control and optimisation of organoleptic and nutritional characteristics as well as stability during further storage, and on the other hand, the elimination of contaminants avoiding or controlling the formation of new undesirable compounds. For each contaminant to be eliminated, the technological issues have to be found at the crossroads of these demands.
Key words: vegetable oils and fats / chemical refining / physical refining / contaminant / food safety / regulation
© John Libbey Eurotext 2010